The Earliest History of the Constellations in the near East and the Motif of the Lion-Bull Combat

  title={The Earliest History of the Constellations in the near East and the Motif of the Lion-Bull Combat},
  author={Willy Hartner},
  journal={Journal of Near Eastern Studies},
  pages={1 - 16}
  • W. Hartner
  • Published 1 January 1965
  • Art, History
  • Journal of Near Eastern Studies
THE symplegma of the lion and the bull as encountered in the monumental sculptures decorating the Achaemenian palaces of Persepolis is one of the oldest motifs and undoubtedly the most tenacious traceable in the history of Near Eastern art. To witness this it will suffice to compare one of the typical Achaemenian versions (P1. I)1 with a prehistoric Elamite seal impression dating from the fourth millennium B.C. (Fig. 1),2 a Sumerian vase decoration (Fig. 2),a a tile from a Sumerian gaming-board… 

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