The Earliest Candidates of Auroral Observations in Assyrian Astrological Reports: Insights on Solar Activity around 660 BCE

  title={The Earliest Candidates of Auroral Observations in Assyrian Astrological Reports: Insights on Solar Activity around 660 BCE},
  author={Hisashi Hayakawa and Yasuyuki Mitsuma and Yusuke Ebihara and Fusa Miyake},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal Letters},
Auroral records found in historical archives and cosmogenic isotopes found in natural archives have served as sound proxies of coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particles (SEPs), respectively, for dates prior to the onset of telescopic sunspot observations in 1610. These space weather events constitute a significant threat to a modern civilization, because of its increasing dependency on an electronic infrastructure. Recent studies have identified multiple extreme space weather events… 

The extreme space weather events in October 1788

Solar eruptions launch interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) and cause geomagnetic storms and equatorial extension of the auroral oval. Their rare and unique nature has made analyses of

The Dalton Minimum and John Dalton’s Auroral Observations

In addition to the regular Schwabe cycles of approximately 11 y, “prolonged solar activity minima” have been identified through the direct observation of sunspots and aurorae, as well as proxy data

An early mid-latitude aurora observed by Rozier (Béziers, 1780)

Abstract. Aurora observations are an uncommon phenomenon at low and mid latitudes that, at the end of the 18th century, were not well known and understood. Low and mid geomagnetic latitude aurora

Provenance of the cross sign of 806 in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: a possible lunar halo over continental Europe?

Abstract. While graphical records of astronomical/meteorological events before telescopic observations are of particular interest, they have frequently undergone multiple instances of copying and may

Intense Geomagnetic Storm during Maunder Minimum Possibly by a Quiescent Filament Eruption

The Sun occasionally undergoes the so-called grand minima, in which its magnetic activity, measured by the number of sunspots, is suppressed for decades. The most prominent grand minima, since the

Extreme Space Weather Events Recorded in History

This section shows an overview of a recent development of the studies on great space weather events in history. Its discussion starts from the Carrington event and compare its intensity with the

An Analysis of Trouvelot's Auroral Drawing on 1/2 March 1872: Plausible Evidence for Recurrent Geomagnetic Storms

This work examines Trouvelot's observations and drawing of an auroral display during the night of 1 March 1872. It is known that the auroral oval moves equatorward to midlatitude and even low

A History of Solar Activity over Millennia

  • I. Usoskin
  • Environmental Science, Physics
    Living Reviews in Solar Physics
  • 2023
Presented here is a review of present knowledge of the long-term behavior of solar activity on a multi-millennial timescale, as reconstructed using the indirect proxy method.The concept of solar

Portuguese eyewitness accounts of the great space weather event of 1582

Newly discovered descriptions about the great aurora observed in March 1582 are presented in this work. These records were made by Portuguese observers from Lisbon. Both records described the aurora

How Do Auroral Substorms Depend on Earth's Dipole Magnetic Moment?

Earth's dipole magnetic moment M is known to decrease by ∼9% over the past 150 years. It has been argued that the decrease in M makes the near‐Earth space environment different. We investigated how

Aurorae: The earliest datable observation of the aurora borealis

The Late Babylonian astronomical texts, discovered at the site of Babylon (32.5°N, 44.4°E) more than a century ago, contain what is probably the earliest reliable account of the aurora borealis. A

Do the Chinese Astronomical Records Dated AD 776 January 12/13 Describe an Auroral Display or a Lunar Halo? A Critical Re-examination

The enhancement of carbon-14 in tree rings around AD 774/775 has generated wide interest in solar activity at that time. The historical auroral records have been examined critically. Of particular

The 1870 space weather event: Geomagnetic and auroral records

[1] The great solar storm that took place on 24–25 October 1870 is not well known and has been almost absent from previous studies. In this work, a large amount of information that was registered at

Earliest datable records of aurora-like phenomena in the astronomical diaries from Babylonia

Results of a survey of aurora-like phenomena in ADB, spanning from BCE 652 to BCE 61, have been presented and it is suggested that five records can be considered as likely candidate for aurora observations.

Mesopotamian planetary astronomy-astrology

Pliny wrote of Babylon that "here the creator of the science of astronomy was". Excavations have shown this statement to be true. This book argues that the earliest attempts at the accurate

Low‐latitude auroras observed in Japan: 1999–2004

[i] From routine observations by means of highly sensitive all-sky cameras and tilting-filter photometers, a total of 20 low-latitude aurora events in Japan were identified during the high solar

Tree rings reveal globally coherent signature of cosmogenic radiocarbon events in 774 and 993 CE

The identification of distinct 14C excursions in 484 individual tree rings enable the authors to confirm the dating of 44 dendrochronologies from five continents, and suggest a global exposure to strong solar proton radiation.

Extreme Space Weather Events: From Cradle to Grave

Extreme space weather events, while rare, can have a substantial impact on our technologically-dependent society. And, although such events have only occasionally been observed, through careful

Revisiting the Sunspot Number

Our knowledge of the long-term evolution of solar activity and of its primary modulation, the 11-year cycle, largely depends on a single direct observational record: the visual sunspot counts that

Multiradionuclide evidence for the solar origin of the cosmic-ray events of ᴀᴅ 774/5 and 993/4

Evidence is provided that these peaks in the atmospheric radiocarbon (14C) concentration at AD 774/5 and 993/4 were most likely produced by extreme solar events, based on several new annually resolved 10Be measurements from both Arctic and Antarctic ice cores.