The Dynamical Balance of the Brain at Rest

@article{Deco2011TheDB,
  title={The Dynamical Balance of the Brain at Rest},
  author={Gustavo Deco and Maurizio Corbetta},
  journal={The Neuroscientist},
  year={2011},
  volume={17},
  pages={107 - 123}
}
The authors review evidence that spontaneous, that is, not stimulus or task driven, activity in the brain at the level of large-scale neural systems is not noise, but orderly and organized in a series of functional networks that maintain, at all times, a high level of coherence. These networks of spontaneous activity correlation or resting state networks (RSN) are closely related to the underlying anatomical connectivity, but their topography is also gated by the history of prior task… 

Figures from this paper

Using the Virtual Brain to Reveal the Role of Oscillations and Plasticity in Shaping Brain's Dynamical Landscape
TLDR
This work demonstrates the capability of spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) combined with intrinsic alpha (8-12 Hz) oscillations to efficiently influence learning and shows how alpha-state-dependent STDP alters the local area dynamics from an irregular to a highly periodic alpha-like state.
Fast transient networks in spontaneous human brain activity
TLDR
Transient brain states with spatial topographies similar to those of well-known resting state networks are revealed, demonstrating that within-network functional connectivity is underpinned by coordinated neuronal dynamics that fluctuate much more rapidly than has previously been shown.
Resting-State Functional Connectivity Emerges from Structurally and Dynamically Shaped Slow Linear Fluctuations
TLDR
A dynamic mean field model is derived that consistently summarizes the realistic dynamics of a detailed spiking and conductance-based synaptic large-scale network, in which connectivity is constrained by diffusion imaging data from human subjects, and it is demonstrated that FC emerges as structured linear fluctuations around a stable low firing activity state close to destabilization.
Intrinsic functional architecture predicts electrically evoked responses in the human brain
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the spatial distribution and magnitude of temporally correlated low-frequency fluctuations observed with R-fMRI during rest predict the pattern and severity of corticocortical evoked potentials elicited within 500 ms after single-pulse electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex with intracranial electrodes.
Local inhibitory plasticity tunes global brain dynamics and allows the emergence of functional brain networks
TLDR
This work employs a local homeostatic inhibitory plasticity mechanism, balancing inhibitory and excitatory activity in a model of macroscopic brain activity based on white-matter structural connectivity, and demonstrates that the addition of homeostatics regulates network activity and allows for the emergence of rich, spontaneous dynamics across a range of brain configurations.
Cortical cores in network dynamics
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 95 REFERENCES
Key role of coupling, delay, and noise in resting brain fluctuations
TLDR
In numerical simulation, the dynamics of a simplified cortical network using 38 noise-driven (Wilson–Cowan) oscillators, which in isolation remain just below their oscillatory threshold are studied, indicating the presence of stochastic resonance and high sensitivity to changes in diffuse feedback activity.
The Relationship Between Synchronization Among Neuronal Populations and Their Mean Activity Levels
TLDR
Observations show that in the absence of specific mechanisms decoupling changes in synchronization from firing levels, indexes of brain activity that are based purely on synaptic activity may also be sensitive to changes in synchronous coupling, and under the assumptions implicit in these models, rate coding and synchrony coding in neural systems with reciprocal interconnections are two perspectives on the same underlying dynamic.
Learning sculpts the spontaneous activity of the resting human brain
TLDR
It is demonstrated that visual perceptual learning, an example of adult neural plasticity, modifies the resting covariance structure of spontaneous activity between networks engaged by the task, concluding that functional connectivity serves a dynamic role in brain function, supporting the consolidation of previous experience.
Cortical network dynamics with time delays reveals functional connectivity in the resting brain
TLDR
By tuning the propagation velocity in a network based on primate connectivity, a hypothesis that time delays in the network dynamics play a crucial role in the generation of temporally coherent fluctuations is tested.
Relating Macroscopic Measures of Brain Activity to Fast, Dynamic Neuronal Interactions
In this article we used biologically plausible simulations of coupled neuronal populations to address the relationship between phasic and fast coherent neuronal interactions and macroscopic measures
Temporal dynamics of spontaneous MEG activity in brain networks
TLDR
Spectral analysis indicated that RSNs manifest in MEG as synchronous modulation of band-limited power primarily within the theta, alpha, and beta bands, in frequencies slower than those associated with the local electrophysiological correlates of event-related BOLD responses.
Neocortical Network Activity In Vivo Is Generated through a Dynamic Balance of Excitation and Inhibition
TLDR
An ongoing temporal evolution between excitation and inhibition, which exhibits remarkable proportionality within and across neurons in active local networks, may allow for rapid transitions between relatively stable network states, permitting the modulation of neuronal responsiveness in a behaviorally relevant manner.
Distinct brain networks for adaptive and stable task control in humans
TLDR
The interactions of these regions are characterized by applying graph theory to resting state functional connectivity MRI data, suggesting the presence of two distinct task-control networks that appear to operate on different time scales and affect downstream processing via dissociable mechanisms.
Consistent resting-state networks across healthy subjects
TLDR
Findings show that the baseline activity of the brain is consistent across subjects exhibiting significant temporal dynamics, with percentage BOLD signal change comparable with the signal changes found in task-related experiments.
Electrophysiological signatures of resting state networks in the human brain
TLDR
This work has identified six widely distributed resting state networks and supports for the first time in humans the coalescence of several brain rhythms within large-scale brain networks as suggested by biophysical studies.
...
...