The Distribution of the Electrons in Atoms

  title={The Distribution of the Electrons in Atoms},
  author={William Henry Sir Bragg},
  • W. Bragg
  • Published 1 May 1915
  • Physics
  • Nature
I HAVE to thank the Editor for his kindness in allowing me to see Mr. Compton's letter. I believe Mr. Compton is right in ascribing the rapid decline in the intensities of the X-ray spectra as we proceed to higher orders to the fact that the atom should not be treated as a point, but as a distribution of electrons in space; if this is so, we may hope to determine this distribution when we have measured the relative intensities accurately and have learnt to interpret them. This hypothesis and… 

A new crystallography is born

scientific discovery was palpable in the summer of 1913 in the laboratory of William Henry Bragg in Leeds, UK. “It was a glorious time, when we worked far into every night with new worlds unfolding

Crystallography Under Extreme Conditions: State of the Art and Perspectives

Sir William Henry Bragg and his son William Lawrence Bragg were the pioneers of crystallography (Bragg, W. H., 1912, 1913a, 1915a, 1915b; Bragg, W. L., 1920). In 1913, they published several

The contributions of Albert W. Hull to X-ray powder diffraction at one hundred years of his landmark publication

One hundred years ago X-ray powder diffraction, one of the premier techniques used in the characterization of materials, was invented. Its origins can be traced to two landmark contributions

Importance of Relativistic Effects and Electron Correlation in Structure Factors and Electron Density of Diphenyl Mercury and Triphenyl Bismuth.

Investigation of the possibility of detecting relativistic effects and electron correlation in single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments using the examples of diphenyl mercury and triphenyl bismuth finds that SO and PCE are negligible, but ECORR and scalar REL are important in low- and medium-order reflections on absolute and relative scales.

Missed opportunities in crystallography

This review analyzes missed opportunities of giants in the history of crystallography focusing on macromolecular crystallographers using Perutz, Pauling, Franklin as examples, although cases of particular historical, methodological or structural relevance are also described.

Hydrogen atoms can be located accurately and precisely by x-ray crystallography

It is shown that, contrary to widespread expectation, hydrogen atoms can be located very accurately using x-ray diffraction, yielding bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms (A–H) that are in agreement with results from neutron diffraction mostly within a single standard deviation.

Optical and microstructural properties of ZnO/TiO2 nanolaminates prepared by atomic layer deposition

The data from X-ray diffraction spectra suggest that layer growth appears to be substrate sensitive and film thickness also has an influence on the crystallization of films, indicating that ZnO layers are polycrystalline with preferred (002) orientation while TiO2 layers are amorphous.

Quantum Crystallography: Expectations vs Reality

  • P. Macchi
  • SpringerBriefs in Crystallography
  • 2022

Crystallography of the past and in the future

ABSTRACT This paper is partly a summary of the book ‘From a grain of salt to the ribosome’ [1], with extension on some points. Sometimes the developments in science may be very rapid and not fully