The Distribution of Lead in Human Enamel

@article{Brudevold1956TheDO,
  title={The Distribution of Lead in Human Enamel},
  author={Finn Brudevold and Ludville T. Steadman},
  journal={Journal of Dental Research},
  year={1956},
  volume={35},
  pages={430 - 437}
}
THE studies which have been made on the occurrence of lead in normal teeth suggest that this element is consistently present in small amounts.'-7 The normal level for whole ashed teeth has been reported to be in the range of 20 to 70 ppm.3 4 Dentin appears to contain approximately 3 times more lead than enamel.3 There have been no studies on the. presence of lead in unerupted teeth or on uptake of lead by teeth. Therefore, it is not known to what extent lead found in teeth has been incorporated… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Trace Elements in Ancient Indian Teeth

To determine whether penetration of trace elements into the bulk of the tooth is a question of time, the concentrations of these elements were determined in surface and subsurface material of ancient teeth and the findings were correlated with comparable data available on contemporary teeth.

Lead in teeth: the influence of the tooth type and the sample within a tooth on lead levels.

Exposure to metal ions and susceptibility to dental caries.

  • W. Bowen
  • Medicine
    Journal of dental education
  • 2001
Data from several epidemiologic studies and animal-based research support the concept that lead is a caries-promoting element, and Elevated blood levels are found most commonly in persons residing in inner cities, particularly among the poor.

Discoloration of Teeth by Metallic Ions

An investigation was undertaken to compare the possible staining properties of lead, tin, silver, mercury, copper, and iron when deposited in enamel and subsequently exposed to a sulfur-containing medium.

Detection of lead in human teeth by exposure to aqueous sulfide solutions.

Most of the discoloration in both thin and intact tooth specimens was confined to the outermost layers of the tooth structure, and delta E was greatest for specimens exposed to the more concentrated Pb (NO3)2 solution.

The epidemiology of dental caries in relation to environmental trace elements

The influence of the geochemical environment on the epidemiology of human dental caries is reviewed and molybdenum has been associated with reduced caries prevalence whereas selenium and lead appear to have adverse effects.

Estimation of Arsenic in Teeth by Activation Analysis

Radioactivation analysis is a technic by which many elements may be detected and estimated with a greater sensitivity than that of conventional analytical procedures.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 39 REFERENCES

The Distribution of Fluoride in Human Enamel

The purpose of the present study was to observe the distribution of fluoride in the enamel with the hope that a better understanding of its caries-reducing effect might be attained.

The Effects of Various Ions on Enamel Solubility

Several reports in the literature indicate that the solubility of enamel in acids can be changed by the action of various ions. Miller (1) using silver nitrate was unable to show retardation in

Spectrum Analysis of Dental Tissues for "Trace" Elements

An effort was made to determine, by the direct-current arc-method of excitation of spectra, the chemical elements present in extremely small mounts of Colorado-Springs drinking water.

Significance of Bone Trabeculae in the Treatment of Lead Poisoning : Lead Studies XVII.

Further evidence is presented in favor of removing lead from the bones, which is stored in the bones for long periods of time and may be found in the excreta over a period of months and probably in small quantities for years.

Normal absorption and excretion of lead.

Various groups of healthy children and adults in the United States, with no occupational exposure, were shown to have lead in their tissues and in their excreta, chiefly because of regular occurrence of lead in the soil and hence in vegetation and animal products employed as food.

Substances Capable of Decreasing the Acid Solubility of Tooth Enamel

In the present work 147 substances, representing compounds of fifty-seven elements, were tested by one or both authors working independently in different laboratories without knowledge of the other's interest in the subject, and the solubilitydepressing effect of sodium fluoride, ammonium oxalate, lead nitrate, and silver nitrate was confirmed.

The Effect of Various Inorganic Salts on the Solubility of Calcium Phosphate, Tooth Enamel, and Whole Teeth in Lactic Acid

In the case of lead nitrate and silver fluoride, increases instead of decreases in the weight of residue were obtained, no doubt as a result of precipitation of lead phosphate and silver phosphate, both of which have greater molecular weights than the calcium phosphate being dissolved.

Treatment of Lead Poisoning with Sodium Citrate

Six cases of lead poisoning seen at the Philadelphia General Hospital since August, 1940 provided the basis of this study and there was a rapid disapearance of toxic symptoms without untoward reactions in every instance and the blood lead concentration fell to normal or nearly normal levels.

The effect of topically applied fluorides on dental caries experience; report of findings with two, four and six applications of sodium fluoride and of lead fluoride.

The results of the study indicate that four applications of a 2-percent solution of sodium fluoride, applied as described in the section on materials and methods, and preceded by dental prophylaxis, are the minimum number required to give maximum reduction in caries incidence.