The Discovery of America

  title={The Discovery of America},
  author={Paul S. Martin},
  pages={969 - 974}
  • Paul S. Martin
  • Published 1973
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Science
I propose a new scenario for the discovery of America. By analogy with other successful animal invasions, one may assume that the discovery of the New World triggered a human population explosion. The invading hunters attained their highest population density along a front that swept from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico in 350 years, and on to the tip of South America in roughly 1000 years. A sharp drop in human population soon followed as major prey animals declined to extinction. Possible values… Expand
The Initial Colonization of North America: Sea Level Change, Shoreline Movement, and Great Migrations
A number of different scenarios have been proposed regarding the origin, timing, and directions initial populations took as they first entered the Americas. In this chapter the major colonizationExpand
Extinctions in North America's Late Glacial landscapes
Human-caused extinctions of terrestrial mammals in large parts of the world such as North America may have been side-effects of rapid long-distance dispersals (biogeographic range-change) by HomoExpand
The timing and effect of the earliest human arrivals in North America
A Bayesian age model suggests that human dispersal to the Americas probably began before the Last Glacial Maximum, overlapping with the last dates of appearance for several faunal genera and was a key factor in the extinction of large terrestrial mammals. Expand
Late Quaternary Extinctions: State of the Debate
Between fifty and ten thousand years ago, most large mammals became extinct everywhere except Africa. Slow-breeding animals also were hard hit, regardless of size. This unusual extinction of largeExpand
An analysis of the chronology of late Pleistocene mammalian extinctions in North America
Abstract Some 35 genera of mammals became extinct in North America as the Pleistocene came to an end. Current attempts to explain those extinctions generally assume that all of the losses took placeExpand
Late Pleistocene mammalian extinctions in North America: Taxonomy, chronology, and explanations
Toward the end of the Pleistocene, North America lost some 35 genera of mammals. It has long been assumed that all or virtually all of the extinctions occurred between 12,000 and 10,000 years ago,Expand
Peopling of North America
Publisher Summary This chapter describes peopling in North America and summarizes where they were when The International Union for Quaternary Science (INQUA) was here in 1965. One element common toExpand
A requiem for North American overkill
The argument that human hunters were responsible for the extinction of a wide variety of large Pleistocene mammals emerged in western Europe during the 1860s, alongside the recognition that peopleExpand
Mammal Faunas of Xeric Habitats and the Great American Interchange
The Great American Interchange is one of the more fascinating occurrences in vertebrate history. A huge continent, South America, was cast adrift from the terrestrial mainland of the GondwanaExpand
Land Mammals and the Great American Interchange
Xhe continents of South America, Africa, Antarctica, Australia, and India were once joined in a large land mass in the southern hemisphere called Gondwana. About 100 million years ago (mya) SouthExpand


The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants
The first book on invasion biology, and still the most cited, Elton's masterpiece provides an accessible, engaging introduction to one of the most important environmental crises of the authors' time. Expand
Early Man in America and the Late Pleistocene Chronology of Western Canada and Alaska
RECENT RESEARCH on the late Pleistocene of northwestern North America has a considerable bearing on the study of early man in America. The first part of this paper deals with late glacial chronologyExpand
An eruptive fluctuation is defined operationally as an increase in numbers over at least two generations, followed by a marked decline. Reported eruptions in ungulates suggest that the upswing isExpand
Biomass Dynamics in a Moose Population
For this single—prey—single—predator system, results demonstrate that the accumulation of biomass in the prey population permits a steady flow of food to the predator, although production of food for the prey is seasonally highly cyclic. Expand
Tule Springs Expedition
of the population of New Guinea, the interior non-Austronesian and the coastal Melanesian speakers, have been studied without there having been detectedany characteristic departure from theExpand
Environmental Potential and the Postglacial Readaptation in Eastern North America
In definitions of the postglacial readaptation in eastern North America, attempts have been made to apply a single standard to the entire area. Such definitions are inadequate since a number ofExpand
Paleoecology of the Large-mammal Community in Interior Alaska during the Late Pleistocene
The high percentage of grazers in the fossil community suggests that interior Alaska was a grassland en- vironment during the late Pleistocene, leaving the comparatively depauperate community that exists in Alaska today. Expand
An Appraisal of Techniques with a New Hemispheric Estimate
  • H. Dobyns
  • History, Sociology
  • Current Anthropology
  • 1966
Social scientists often consider population size as an independent variable major importance. The author analyzes, therefore, methodological reasons why most prior estimates of aboriginal AmericaExpand
Biological and cultural evidence from prehistoric human coprolites.
Analysis of ancient human fecal material preserved in various archeological sites covering a long span of mani's occupation in arid regions in the Old World and the New have been undertaken in order to investigate the possible presence of pathogens, parasites, and other organisms common. Expand
A comparative view of sperm ultrastructure.
  • D. Fawcett
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Biology of reproduction
  • 1970
A comparative study of mammalian sperm showed common structure but species differences in the thickness of the outer fibers length of the midpiece and overall diameter of the tail, consistent with the interpretation that the axoneme is capable of functioning independently of a mitochondrial energy source but that the long middle piece of vertebrate sperm has evolved to meet the energy requirements of the accessory outer fibers. Expand