The Disappeared: Beyond Winning and Losing

@article{Conway2018TheDB,
  title={The Disappeared: Beyond Winning and Losing},
  author={Lynn Conway},
  journal={Computer},
  year={2018},
  volume={51},
  pages={66-73}
}
  • L. Conway
  • Published 1 October 2018
  • Political Science
  • Computer
When “others” (such as women and people of color) make innovative contributions in scientific and technical fields, they often “disappear” from later history and their contributions are ascribed elsewhere. This is seldom deliberate—rather, it’s a result of the accumulation of advantage by those who are expected to innovate. This article chronicles an example of such a disappearance and introduces the Conway Effect to elucidate the disappearance process. 
Assessing Institutionalized Bias
Ideally, higher education systems are meritocracies in which advancement or promotion is based on demonstrated accomplishment and scholarly impact. “Merit” is believed to be associated with innate
Arpanet (1969–2019)
Abstract ARPANET’s story is part of the Internet’s official heritage, as a first crucial step in its development. Janet Abbate’s seminal work Inventing the Internet (1999) has extensively covered its

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 22 REFERENCES
The Matthew Matilda Effect in Science
Recent work has brought to light so many cases, historical and contemporary, of women scientists who have been ignored, denied credit or otherwise dropped from sight that a sex-linked phenomenon
The Matthew Effect in Science
Based on interviews with Nobel laureates, Merton^ observes that eminent scientists get disproportionately great credit for their contributions to science, while relatively unknown scientists tend to
Reminiscences of the VLSI Revolution: How a Series of Failures Triggered a Paradigm Shift in Digital Design
  • L. Conway
  • Art
    IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine
  • 2012
Innovations in science and engineering have excited me for a lifetime, as they have for many friends and colleagues. Unfortunately, our wider culture often imagines the engineering life to be one of
“Covering”: How We Missed the Inside-Story of the VLSI Revolution
  • K. Shepard
  • History
    IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine
  • 2012
I'm delighted to comment on Lynn Conway's outstanding piece “Reminiscences of the VLSI Revolution: How a series of failures triggered a paradigm shift in digital design.” What we often forget in
A Paradigm Shift Was Happening All Around Us
  • C. House
  • History
    IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine
  • 2012
Thankfully, Ridley Scott's brilliant Super Bowl ad, proclaiming that 1984 won't be like 1984, heralded a Golden Age of Electronics instead of George Orwell's dyspeptic scenario. Apple's Macintosh
The book that changed everything
Until 1979, IC design was done by specialists who understood every aspect of the design from semiconductor fabrication, transistor characteristics, all the way up to small blocks of a maybe a
...
...