The Dirty Work of Promoting “Recycling” of America's Sewage Sludge

@article{Snyder2005TheDW,
  title={The Dirty Work of Promoting “Recycling” of America's Sewage Sludge},
  author={Caroline Snyder},
  journal={International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health},
  year={2005},
  volume={11},
  pages={415 - 427}
}
  • Caroline Snyder
  • Published 1 October 2005
  • Economics
  • International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
Abstract Serious illnesses, including deaths, and adverse environmental impacts have been linked to land application of sewage sludge. EPA and the wastewater treatment industry have worked with Congress to fund wastewater trade associations to promote land application, supporting industry-friendly scientists and discouraging independent research, to prevent local governments from restricting land application and to thwart litigation against municipalities and the industry. 
Suitability of public records for evaluating health effects of treated sewage sludge in North Carolina.
TLDR
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Effect of urbanisation and industrialization on water and soil of Dehradun and its Suburban areas
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References

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A High-Level Disinfection Standard for Land-Applied Sewage Sludges (Biosolids)
TLDR
To prevent acute health effects, it is recommended that the current system of classifying sludges based on indicator pathogen levels be replaced with a single high-level disinfection standard and that methods used to treatsludges be improved to reduce levels of irritant chemicals, especially endotoxins.
Flame retardants: Persistent pollutants in land-applied sludges
TLDR
High concentrations of an environmentally persistent class of organic pollutants, brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs), in 'biosolids' from four different regions of the United States suggest that the environmental consequences of land application of biosolids need further investigation.
Land application of sewage sludges: an appraisal of the US regulations
This paper was published in the peer reviewed INT. J. OF ENVIRONMENT AND POLLUTION, 1999, Vol. 11 No. 1 pp 1-36. The journal is available in both hard copy and on-line PDF format. For more
Investigation of Alleged Health Incidents Associated with Land Application of Sewage Sludges
  • E. Harrison, S. R. Oakes
  • Environmental Science
    New solutions : a journal of environmental and occupational health policy : NS
  • 2002
TLDR
Analysis of the limited data suggests that surface-applied Class B sludges present the greatest risk and should be eliminated, however, even under less risky application scenarios, the potential for off-site movement of chemicals, pathogens, and biological agents suggests that their use should be elimination.
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Despite complaints of related illnesses, little is known about the dangers of spreading biosolids on land.
Organic Contaminants of Emerging Concern in Land-Applied Sewage Sludge (Biosolids)
Modern wastewater treatment greatly ameliorates the release to the aquatic environment of pollutants present in industrial and residential discharges. How- ever, the recycling of sewage sludge (also
National survey of elements and other constituents in municipal sewage sludges
Fifty-nine elements, poly chlorinated biphenyls, volatile N-nitrosamines and gamma emission were determined in 30 sewage sludges from 23 American cities using several analytical methods. Relatively
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