• Corpus ID: 113406252

The Difference Between Topical and Transdermal Medications

  title={The Difference Between Topical and Transdermal Medications},
  author={Robert L. Wilbur},
Topical medications are widely used as prescription or over the counter (OTC) treatments for a variety of conditions. Though their use is common, there exists a significant confusion among the general public and some medically trained professionals, as to the difference between topical and transdermal products. While all topical and transdermal compounds are applied to the skin, only the transdermal formulations are designed to penetrate through the skin layer and exert their effects on deeper… 

Characteristics of Analgesic Patch Formulations

A variety of analgesics are currently available as patch formulations including local anesthetics, capsaicin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioids, and newer patch technologies that lend towards improved adhesion and compliance are introduced.

Ultraflexible Liposome Nanocargo as a Dermal and Transdermal Drug Delivery System

Various applications of liposome derivatives in different diseases are emphasized in this review, enabling polymer-coated ethanolic liposomes to avoid detection by the body’s immune system—specifically, the cells of the reticuloendothelial system.

Chemical Enhancers or Transcutaneous Conductors: Transcutol

The transcutaneous action effectiveness of chemical enhancers is shown to depend on not only the structure and concentration but also the physicochemical characteristics of the penetrating drugs.



Chemical enhancement of percutaneous absorption in relation to stratum corneum structural alterations.


  • M. Roberts
  • Biology
    Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology
  • 1997
The major barrier for the transport of drugs through the skin is the stratum corneum, with most transport occurring through the intercellular region, where the permeability of the more lipophilic solutes is greatest from aqueous solutions, whereas polar solute permeability is favoured by hydrocarbon‐based vehicles.

Novel mechanisms and devices to enable successful transdermal drug delivery.

  • B. W. Barry
  • Biology
    European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences
  • 2001

Permeability of the Skin to Gases

Abstract : The report presents a study of the permeability of human skin (epidermis and stratum corneum) to vapors and gases. Physical measurements include the determination of the solubility of

Detergents as Tools in Membrane Biochemistry*

The various aggregate forms detergents assume and some misconceptions about their structure are discussed in this minireview.

Drug permeation through human skin: Theory and invitro experimental measurement

The extraordinarily low permeability of skin to most micromolecules appears to arise from the very low diffusivity of such molecules in the intercellular lipid phase.

Breaking the skin barrier.

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  • Chemistry, Medicine
    Advanced drug delivery reviews
  • 2004

Epidermal Lipids, Membranes, and Keratinization.

  • P. Elias
  • Biology
    International journal of dermatology
  • 1981
The elegant biophysical experiments of Blank and Scheuplein together with the demonstration of the exquisite geometric organization of the stratum corneum have shown new respect on this layer, and haveirted the concept that the entire stratum Corneum subserves the barrier function of the skin.

Drug delivery to the skin

  • 1 st Ed Ellis Horwood
  • 1989