The Development of C4 Rice: Current Progress and Future Challenges

  title={The Development of C4 Rice: Current Progress and Future Challenges},
  author={Susanne von Caemmerer and William Paul Quick and Robert T. Furbank},
  pages={1671 - 1672}
Another “green revolution” is needed for crop yields to meet demands for food. The international C4 Rice Consortium is working toward introducing a higher-capacity photosynthetic mechanism—the C4 pathway—into rice to increase yield. The goal is to identify the genes necessary to install C4 photosynthesis in rice through different approaches, including genomic and transcriptional sequence comparisons and mutant screening. 

Molecular and Genomic Tools for Improving Photosynthetic Efficiency of C 3 Species in the Changing Climates

  • Environmental Science
  • 2017
There is an urgent need to increase crop productivity beyond the existing yield potentials to tackle the challenge of food security in the near future. One of the areas of plant physiology that

Molecular Improvement of Grain: Target Traits for a Changing World

Increasing crop yield and resilience with trehalose 6-phosphate: targeting a feast–famine mechanism in cereals for better source–sink optimization

Targeting T6P both temporally and spatially offers great promise for large yield improvements in productive and marginal environments, and this opinion paper highlights this important breakthrough in fundamental science for crop improvement.

Exploring natural variation of photosynthesis in a site-specific manner: evolution, progress, and prospects

Site-specific changes of photosynthesis, a relatively new concept, can be used to improve the productivity of critical food crops to mitigate the foreseen food crisis and hold a potential to enhance the yields of economically important C3 crops.

The next green movement: Plant biology for the environment and sustainability

Recent efforts to engineer plants for better nitrogen and phosphorus use, enhanced carbon fixation, and environmental remediation and to understand plant-microbiome interactions showcase exciting future directions for translational plant biology.

Strategies for Optimizing Photosynthesis with Biotechnology to Improve Crop Yield

The world’s population is projected to increase to 9 billion by 2050 (Roberts 2011), while the availability of arable land will decrease as environmental degradation and destruction grow worse.

Engineering photorespiration: current state and future possibilities.

An overview about the major current attempts to reduce photorespiratory losses in crop species and suggestions for future research priorities are presented.

Engineering photosynthesis: progress and perspectives

Recent advances of alternative approaches for the manipulation and enhancement of photosynthesis and their possible application for crop improvement are summarized.

Comparative analyses of C4 and C3 photosynthesis in developing leaves of maize and rice

To identify differences between C4 and C3 photosynthetic mechanisms, metabolites and gene expression in the developing leaves of Zea mays and Oryza sativa were profiled using a statistical method named the unified developmental model (UDM).



Strategies for engineering a two-celled C(4) photosynthetic pathway into rice.

This review provides an update on two of the many approaches employed by the C(4) Rice Consortium: namely, metabolic C( 4) engineering and identification of determinants of leaf anatomy by mutant screens.

Setaria viridis: A Model for C4 Photosynthesis[C][W]

Recent advances that promise greatly to accelerate the use of S. viridis as a genetic system are summarized, including recent successful efforts at regenerating plants from seed callus, establishing a transient transformation system, and developing stable transformation.

Lessons from engineering a single-cell C(4) photosynthetic pathway into rice.

Attempt to introduce a single-cell C(4)-like pathway in which CO(2) capture and release occur in the mesophyll cell, such as the one found in the aquatic plant Hydrilla verticillata, into rice is described.

Biochemical models of leaf photosynthesis.

This is a comprehensive presentation of the most widely used models of steady-state photosynthesis by an author who is a world authority and will be a standard reference for the formal analysis of photosynthetic metabolism in vivo by advanced students and researchers.

Functional Analysis of Corn Husk Photosynthesis[W][OA]

The husk surrounding the ear of corn/maize (Zea mays) has widely spaced veins with a number of interveinal mesophyll (M) cells and has been described as operating a partial C3 photosynthetic pathway,

C4 Cycles: Past, Present, and Future Research on C4 Photosynthesis

An overview of the current understanding, the questions that are being addressed, and the issues that lie ahead of understanding how the C4 pathway evolved, how it is regulated, and how it might be manipulated is provided.


This review examines the potential diversity of both Rubisco and chloroplast-based CCMs across algal divisions, including both green and nongreen algae, and seeks to highlight recent advances in the understanding of the area and future areas for research.

The C(4) plant lineages of planet Earth.

Using isotopic screens, phylogenetic assessments, and 45 years of physiological data, it is now possible to identify most of the evolutionary lineages expressing the C(4) photosynthetic pathway, and is thus an outstanding system to study the mechanisms of evolutionary adaptation.

Phosphorylation of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Is Not Essential for High Photosynthetic Rates in the C4 Species Flaveria bidentis1[OA]

There were, however, no differences in the CO2 and light response of CO2 assimilation rates between wild-type plants and transgenic plants with low PEPC phosphorylation, showing that phosphorylated PEPC in the light is not essential for efficient C4 photosynthesis for plants grown under standard glasshouse conditions.