The Development and Validation of the Genderism and Transphobia Scale

  title={The Development and Validation of the Genderism and Transphobia Scale},
  author={Darryl B. Hill and Brian L. B. Willoughby},
  journal={Sex Roles},
A series of three studies were conducted to develop and validate a scale to measure violence, harassment, and discrimination toward cross-dressers, transgenderists, and transsexuals. In Study 1, we developed the Genderism and Transphobia Scale (GTS). In Study 2, we established the GTS's ability to predict parents' reactions to either a gender conforming or a gender non-conforming boy or girl. Correlations between the GTS and scales that assess homophobia and gender role ideologies suggest… Expand
Who Hates Gender Outlaws? A Multisite and Multinational Evaluation of the Genderism and Transphobia Scale
ABSTRACT Four independent studies conducted in three different countries evaluated the strength of the Genderism and Transphobia Scale (GTS; Hill & Willoughby, 2005), a recently developed measure ofExpand
Development and validation of the transgender prejudice scale
The Transgender Prejudice Scale (TPS) was developed and validated across four studies as a measure of transgender prejudice (transprejudice). The TPS is a 25-item scale with two subscales: sexExpand
Attitudes Toward Transgender Men and Women: Development and Validation of a New Measure
The results demonstrate that the Attitudes toward Transgender Men and Women (ATTMW) is a reliable and valid measure of attitudes toward transgender individuals. Expand
Development and Validation of the Transgender Attitudes and Beliefs Scale
The development and validation of the Transgender Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (TABS) is reported, representing an addition to the literature in its ability to capture a more nuanced conceptualization of transgender attitude not found in previous scales. Expand
Two Sexes, Two Genders Only: Measuring Attitudes toward Transgender Individuals in Poland
Transphobia is an under-examined but important type of prejudice to study in Polish culture. Poland is a country where a majority of transgender people feel discriminated against. There is a need forExpand
Development Of The Transgender Attitudes And Knowledge Scale (Trans) And Evangelical Christians' Attitudes Toward Transgender
In recent years, issues surrounding transgender have gained more media and legal attention than ever before, contributing to rapidly shifting views on gender around the world. In the U.S., views ofExpand
Spanish Adolescents’ Attitudes toward Transpeople: Proposal and Validation of a Short Form of the Genderism and Transphobia Scale
In the study, boys exhibited significantly more negative attitudes toward transpeople than girls did, both in the affective/cognitive dimension (Transphobia/Genderism) and in the behavioral dimension (Gender Bashing). Expand
Revised and abbreviated forms of the Genderism and Transphobia Scale: tools for assessing anti-trans prejudice.
The present research addressed previously observed limitations in the psychometric properties of data produced by the GTS, including inconsistencies in factor structure and subscale scoring across studies. Expand
Validation Study of the Revised Version of the Scale of Prejudice Against Sexual and Gender Diversity in Brazil
The results indicate that the PASGD is a useful tool for assessing prejudice in the Brazilian context, adapted for the local Brazilian reality. Expand
Reliability and Validity of Feminist Identity Composite in Chinese Women
The results indicated that a new measurement with solid conceptual and psychometrically solid properties needs to be developed to assess Chinese women’s feminist identity. Expand


Development and Validation of the Homophobia Scale
This study describes the development and validation of the Homophobia Scale. The scale was developed to assess the cognitive, affective, and behavioral components of homophobia. The participantsExpand
Genderbashing: Sexuality, Gender, and the Regulation of Public Space
In this paper I address the relations between gender and sexuality in violence generally known as ‘gaybashing’. I argue that a perceived transgression of normative sex-gender relations motivates mostExpand
Attitudes Toward Transsexualism in a Swedish National Survey
A majority supports the possibility for transsexuals to undergo sex reassignment; however, 63% thought that the individual should bear the expenses for it, and men and the older age group were found to hold a more restrictive view on these issues than women and the younger age group. Expand
The measurement of psychological androgyny.
  • S. Bem
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of consulting and clinical psychology
  • 1974
A new sex-role inventory is described that treats masculinity and femininity as two independent dimensions, thereby making it possible to characterize a person as masculine, feminine, or "androgynous" as a function of the difference between his or her endorsement of masculine and feminine personality characteristics. Expand
Drawing on data from interviews with 65 masculine-to-feminine transgenderists, the authors examine the coming-out experiences of transgendered individuals. Drawing on the literature that shows genderExpand
Gender Violence
Investigation found that experiencing economic discrimination because one is transgendered had the strongest association with experiencing a transgender related violent incident, and economic discrimination was related totransgendered people's experience with violence. Expand
The Context of Anti-Gay Violence
Hate crimes against lesbians and gay men occur within a broader cultural context that is permeated by heterosexism. Heterosexism is defined here as an ideological system that denies, denigrates, andExpand
Can functions be measured? A new perspective on the functional approach to attitudes.
This paper argues for the value of a reformulated and reoperationalized functional approach to attitudes. The development of two new procedures for directly assessing functions is described. First, aExpand
Gendered Sex Work in the San Francisco Tenderloin
Examining gender differences in the work of 140 sex workers in the San Francisco Tenderloin, it is found that women do not suffer inequities of income, and transgenders are more like the men, although various aspect of their condition make for some uniquedifferences. Expand
Health professionals' factual knowledge and changing attitudes toward transsexuals.
In the present sample GPs tend to hold the most conservative views, while clinical psychologists consistently endorse the most liberal positions, and no differences emerged among the five groups of health care professionals on the factual knowledge assessment. Expand