The Development and Preliminary Validation of the Tower of Hanoi-Revised

  title={The Development and Preliminary Validation of the Tower of Hanoi-Revised},
  author={Marilyn C. Welsh and M. Huizinga},
  pages={167 - 176}
The objective of this study was to redesign the Tower of Hanoi (TOH) in order to increase the reliability and explore the validity of the task. In order to achieve this goal, a two-phase process was undertaken. In Phase 1, the TOH item pool was enlarged from 12 items to 60 items, and the task was administered to a sample of college students (N = 81). The 22 most homogeneous items for the final task were identified based on the item-total correlations. In Phase 2, the rebuilt TOH (TOH-R) was… 
Fractionation of Executive Function: A Developmental Approach
The Tower of Hanoi has become a popular tool in neuropsychology and cognitive psychology to assess a set of behaviors collectively referred to as executive function (EF). Substantial variability in
Tower of London and Tower of Hanoi: distinct contributions to the assessment of executive functioning
Objective: To produce theoretical study about comparisons of cognitive and methodological aspects involved in the performance of Towers of Hanoi and London in normal individuals. Method: Narrative
Association between formal operational thought and executive function as measured by the Tower of Hanoi-Revised
Abstract Executive functions have been defined in the neuropsychological literature as those cognitive processes that underlie future-oriented, goal-directed behavior such as planning, working
Tower of Hanoi disk-transfer task: Influences of strategy knowledge and learning on performance
Tower of Hanoi has become a popular tool in cognitive and neuropsychology to assess a set of behaviors collectively referred to as executive functions. Substantial variability in performance on the
Prefrontal–parietal correlation during performance of the towers of Hanoi task in male children, adolescents and young adults
It is demonstrated that the functional coupling between these two cortices shows a characteristic pattern during performance of the Hanoi task that, while specific to each age group, was not associated with the success of the task.
Concurrent Validity of the Tower Tasks as Measures of Executive Function in Adults: A Meta-Analysis
Neuroimaging and electrophysiological evidence are consistent with theoretical hypotheses of frontal involvement in tower task performance and adults with various disorders of presumed neurological basis demonstrate impaired performance on tower tasks.
Differentiating Tower of Hanoi Performance: Interactive Effects of Psychopathic Tendencies, Impulsive Response Styles, and Modality
The results suggest that individuals with elevated psychopathic tendencies within a normal population are not necessarily deficient in problem-solving performance on the computerized version of the Tower of Hanoi.
Extension of the Contingency Naming Test to Adult Assessment: Psychometric Analysis in a College Student Sample
Results from the current study provide added support for the utility of the CNT as a measure of executive functioning in young adults, although more research is needed to determine patterns of performance among adult clinical groups, as well as to understand how performance patterns may change in a broader age range, including middle and older adulthood.
Examining the Validity of the Preschool Kitchen Task Assessment
Background and purpose. Executive function (EF) skills are necessary to set a strong foundation for play development, school readiness and social participation in young children. However, few
Performance of Healthy, Older Adults on the Tower of London Revised: Associations with Verbal and Nonverbal Abilities
  • N. Zook, M. Welsh, Vanessa Ewing
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Neuropsychology, development, and cognition. Section B, Aging, neuropsychology and cognition
  • 2006
It is suggested that performance on the TOL-R is a psychometrically sound executive function measure for older adults and that individual differences in fluid intelligence are more predictive of performance than chronological age.


Development of the Tower of London-Revised
The objective of this work was to reconstruct the Tower of London (TOL) test in order to increase its reliability and the internal consistency reliability (Chronbach alpha) was estimated at .794.
Towers of Hanoi and London: Is the Nonshared Variance Due to Differences in Task Administration?
The results suggest that it would be of value to redesign the one-trial Tower of Hanoi systematically to increase its reliability and, potentially, its validity as a measure of executive functions.
The Construct Validity of The Tower of London DX As a Measure of The Executive Functioning of ADHD Children
The TOLDX was found to produce the highest loading on an Executive Planning/Inhibition factor comprised of other executive measures, suggesting that each assesses, to varying degrees, related executive dimensions.
Towers of Hanoi and London: Reliability and Validity of Two Executive Function Tasks
The results revealed a significant, but relatively low, correlation between performances on the Towers of Hanoi and London, indicating that the likely source of the lack of convergence was the unreliability of the Tower of London.
Towers of Hanoi and London: Contribution of Working Memory and Inhibition to Performance
The Tower of Hanoi and Tower of London have become well-established executive function tasks that presumably tap cognitive skills mediated by the frontal cortex; however, there was a relatively weaker contribution of inhibition to TOH performance.
Rule-guided behavior and self-monitoring on the tower of hanoi disk-transfer task
Abstract Problem-solving efficiency, rule-based strategies, and self-monitoring were observed on a novel planning task that provided feedback, practice, and the opportunity for strategy revision. The
Assessment of procedural learning and problem solving in schizophrenic patients by Tower of Hanoi type tasks.
Schizophrenic patients performed at least as well relatively on Tower 4 as on Tower 3, indicating that level of difficulty per se does not account for their poor performance on these tasks and suggests greater preservation of basal ganglia function than of prefrontal function.
The role of memory in the Tower of London task.
The results suggest that executive and spatial components are important in the task, and raise questions about the role of preplanning in the TOL.
Are the frontal lobes implicated in “planning” functions? Interpreting data from the Tower of Hanoi
Twenty adult patients with lesions in the prefrontal cortex were tested on the Tower of Hanoi puzzle. The performance of patients was significantly worse than that of controls. This difference could
A normative‐developmental study of executive function: A window on prefrontal function in children
Normative‐developmental performance on a battery of executive function tasks was investigated. Executive function was defined as goal‐directed behavior, including planning, organized search, and