The Demographic Effects of Colonialism: Forced Labor and Mortality in Java, 1834–1879

  title={The Demographic Effects of Colonialism: Forced Labor and Mortality in Java, 1834–1879},
  author={Pim de Zwart and Daniel Gallardo‐Albarr{\'a}n and Auke Rijpma},
  journal={The Journal of Economic History},
  pages={211 - 249}
We investigate the demographic effects of forced labor under an extractive colonial regime: the Cultivation System in nineteenth-century Java. Our panel analyses show that labor demands are strongly positively associated with mortality rates, likely resulting from malnourishment and unhygienic conditions on plantations and the spread of infectious diseases. An instrumental variable approach, using international market prices for coffee and sugar for predicting labor demands, addresses potential… 


Coercive Institutions and Female Empowerment: Legacies of a Colonial Experiment on Java
What are the long-run implications of coercive colonial institutions on female empowerment? In this paper, we study the shortand long-term effects of a colonial experiment the Dutch Cultivation
This paper presents empirical evidence to support the labour demand theory of rising reproductive fertility in colonial Indonesia. According to this theory, birth rates in nineteenth-century Java
The Development Effects of the Extractive Colonial Economy: The Dutch Cultivation System in Java
Colonial powers typically organized economic activity in the colonies to maximize their economic returns. While the literature has emphasized long-run negative economic impacts via institutional
Economic History and Modern India: Redefining the Link
This paper argues that to restore the link between economic history and modern India, a different narrative of Indian economic history is needed. An exclusive focus on colonialism as the driver of
An Economic History of Indonesia: 1800-2010
1. Introduction: Indonesia between Drama and Miracle 2. Exploring the Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Two Hundred Years of eEonomic Growth in Indonesia, 1800-2000 3. Colonial State Formation,
Famine and Food Supply in Java 1830–1914
In this article I shall discuss a subject which until recently has received little attention: the outbreak of famines and the regulation of food supplies in Java under colonial rule.1 The subject is
The components of population change in nineteenth-century South-east Asia: village data from the Philippines.
This paper is derived from a continuing research programme in Philippine historical demography that has three long-term goals: to establish a comparative basis for studies of contemporary demographic changes in the Philippines; to answer certain questions of particular interest in the setting of colonial and post-colonial South-east Asia; and to diversify the empirical base of demographic transition theory.
Studying a Colonial Economy—Without Perceiving Colonialism
  • I. Habib
  • Economics, History
    Modern Asian Studies
  • 1985
From the size of India's population alone the economic history of India constitutes an important segment of the economic history of mankind. But with the middle of the eighteenth century, it assumed
Persistence of Fortune: Accounting for Population Movements, There Was No Post-Columbian Reversal
We revisit the idea that colonized countries that were more (less) economically advanced in 1500 became poorer (richer, respectively) by the late 20th century. Using data on place of origin of
Mobilizing Labour for the Global Coffee Market: Profits From an Unfree Work Regime in Colonial Java
Coffee has been grown on Java for the commercial market since the early eighteenth century, when the Dutch East India Company began buying from peasant producers in the Priangan highlands. What began