The Debate on Carcinogenicity of Permanent Hair Dyes: New Insights

  title={The Debate on Carcinogenicity of Permanent Hair Dyes: New Insights},
  author={Hermann M. Bolt and Klaus Golka},
  journal={Critical Reviews in Toxicology},
  pages={521 - 536}
  • H. Bolt, K. Golka
  • Published 1 January 2007
  • Chemistry
  • Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Oxidative (permanent) hair dyes contain one or several “primary intermediates” (e.g., p-phenylenediamines, p-aminophenols) and “couplers” (e.g., m-aminophenols, m-hydroxyphenols). In the presence of peroxide, the primary intermediate(s) and the coupler(s) undergo a chemical reaction to form colored oligomers. In the 1970s a number of aromatic amines used in oxidative hair dyes were identified as mutagenic and/or carcinogenic in rodents after lifetime oral administration. In response, regulatory… 
para-Phenylenediamine Containing Hair Dye: An Overview of Mutagenicity, Carcinogenicity and Toxicity
A comprehensive review on the chemical ingredients of hair dyes, roles of P PD in hair dye, metabolic mechanisms of PPD through in vivo and in vitro studies, and mechanism involvement in the health effect of PPM as evidenced from both clinical and laboratory studies is provided.
Analysis of mutagenic components of oxidative hair dyes with the Ames test
The results suggest that the positive results for the oxidative hair dye in the Ames test were inevitable because of the existence of DATS in component I and of hydrogen peroxide in component II.
Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of two hair dyes used in the formulation of black color.
Exposure of hairdressers to ortho- and meta-toluidine in hair dyes
Hairdressers who use light-colour permanent hair dyes, other permanenthair dyes and hair waving treatments seem to be exposed to o- and m-toluidine as indicated by associations with the number of treatments performed.
Antigenotoxic Effects of Epigallocatechin Gallate against Hair Dye Induced Genotoxicity in Cultured Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes
In vitro investigations indicate that hair dye ingredients, including p-Phenylenediamine, are significantly genotoxic and hair dye along with EGCG shows significant decrease in tail moment and SCE frequency in a dose-dependent manner as compared to hair dye treated samples.
Internal exposure of hairdressers to permanent hair dyes: a biomonitoring study using urinary aromatic diamines as biomarkers of exposure
The internal exposure to aromatic diamines in hairdressers using permanent hair dyes can be determined using biological monitoring, and the extent of exposure is low compared to subjects after personal application of hair dye, who excreted more than 200 times higher amounts of aromatic diamine.
Role of Personal Care Products and Phototoxicity
Cosmetics are chemical substances or products that are used to change the look or fragrance of the human beings. Mostly cosmetics are applied usually on the face and hair area. Sun acts as a natural
Determination of 2,5-toluylenediamine (2,5-TDA) and aromatic amines in urine after personal application of hair dyes: kinetics and doses
The results could not prove an increased internal exposure of humans to carcinogenic amines after personal application of hair dyes, but kinetics and doses for the urinary excretion were calculated under real-life conditions.
Hair Dye Ingredients and Potential Health Risks from Exposure to Hair Dyeing
Given the worldwide popularity of hair dyeing, there is an urgent need to understand the toxicities and risks associated with exposure to chemicals found in hair dye formulations. Hair dyes are
Final Report on the Safety Assessment of 3-Methylamino-4-Nitrophenoxyethanol as Used in Hair Dyes
The Expert Panel expects that following this procedure will prospectively identify individuals who would have an irritation/sensitization reaction and allow them to avoid significant exposures and concluded that 3-Methylamino-4-Nitrophenoxyethanol is safe as a cosmetic ingredient in the practices of use and use concentrations described in this safety report.


Study of long-term percutaneous toxicity and carcinogenicity of hair dyes (oxidizing dyes) in rats.
Toxicity and human health risk of hair dyes.
Carcinogenicity of hair dye components.
  • B. L. Van Duuren
  • Chemistry, Biology
    Journal of environmental pathology and toxicology
  • 1980
The available epidemiologic data are not sufficient to link hair dye use with an increased incidence in human cancer, and it is not known whether such compounds will enhance the carcinogenicity of substituted aniline hair dye chemicals.
Long-term toxicity studies on oxidation hair dyes.
Hair dyes are mutagenic: identification of a variety of mutagenic ingredients.
It is shown here that 89% (150/169) of commercial oxidative-type (hydrogen peroxide) hair dye formulations are mutagenic in this test, a sensitive bacterial test for detecting carcinogens as mutagens.
In vitro genotoxicity of para-phenylenediamine and its N-monoacetyl or N,N'-diacetyl metabolites.
Carcinogenicity of azo colorants: influence of solubility and bioavailability.
A case-control study of hair-dye use and cancers of various sites.
A number of epidemiological studies of the carcinogenicity of hair dyes have been reported, and the relationship was not strong and was virtually confined to women over 50 years of age, and to those at lowest natural risk for breast cancer.