The Danger Model: A Renewed Sense of Self

@article{Matzinger2002TheDM,
  title={The Danger Model: A Renewed Sense of Self},
  author={P. Matzinger},
  journal={Science},
  year={2002},
  volume={296},
  pages={301 - 305}
}
For over 50 years immunologists have based their thoughts, experiments, and clinical treatments on the idea that the immune system functions by making a distinction between self and nonself. Although this paradigm has often served us well, years of detailed examination have revealed a number of inherent problems. This Viewpoint outlines a model of immunity based on the idea that the immune system is more concerned with entities that do damage than with those that are foreign. 
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