The Curious Eye of Copilia

@article{Gregory1964TheCE,
  title={The Curious Eye of Copilia},
  author={RICHARD L. Gregory and Helen E. Ross and N. Moray},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1964},
  volume={201},
  pages={1166-1168}
}
The nineteenth-century zoologist Seliq Exner reported in 1891 the structure of a copepod living in the bay of Naples, having what turned out to be a most curious eye – possibly a single channel scanning eye, like a simple mechanical television camera, feeding information of spatial structure down a single neural channel in time. Professor J. Z. Young pointed out to me that several compound eyes – especially the eye of Daphnia – are in the kind of ‘continual lively motion’ reported by Exner for… 

Eye-scanning during walking in the crabLeptograpsus variegatus

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  • Biology
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  • 2004
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It is proposed that the scanning is the result of a general increase of activity in the oculomotor neurons during walking, which causes the eyes to oscillate at a frequency set by the properties of the optokinetic feedback system.

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The problem of the narrow field of view is solved in one heteropod species at least by systematic scanning movements of the eyes, in which each retina ' sweeps' through a 90 0 arc.

Optical Scanning in the Lateral Eyes of the Copepod Copilia

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Movements of a coloured stripe pattern elicited the putatively scanning movements of the receptor structure, suggesting strongly that these really are an intrinsic part of normal visual functioning, not an epiphenomenon, and support the hypothesis that Copilia's eye is an optical scanning system.

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It seemed important to learn more about the optics and imaging properties of such scanning eyes and also to see by electron microscopy how the rhabdom and its rhabdomeres are structured in comparison to other arthropod visual systems.

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Based on a review of studies of functional and comparative anatomy of crustacean eyes, a hypothesis is formed that eyes in primitive crustaceans were similar to present-day frontal eyes of the malacostracan type.

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  • N. Moray
  • Environmental Science
    Perception
  • 1972
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  • M. LandP. Heard
  • Art
    Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society
  • 2018
Richard Gregory was a pioneer of cognitive psychology. Much of his scientific work involved the development and interpretation of visual illusions, which he used as a tool to work out the perceptual

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  • B. Frost
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    The Journal of experimental biology
  • 1975
TLDR
The various types of eye movement exhibited by the cyclopean eye of Daphnia pulex were studied using high speed motion photography and a Fourier analysis revealed that the fast tremor occurred concurrently with the slow rhythmic scan, and the former was the fourth harmonic of the latter.

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Die Physiologie der facettirten Augen von Krebsen und Insecten