The Ctenophore Genome and the Evolutionary Origins of Neural Systems

@article{Moroz2014TheCG,
  title={The Ctenophore Genome and the Evolutionary Origins of Neural Systems},
  author={Leonid L. Moroz and Kevin M. Kocot and Mathew R. Citarella and Sohn Dosung and Tigran P. Norekian and Inna S. Povolotskaya and Anastasia P. Grigorenko and Christopher A. Dailey and E. V. Berezikov and Katherine M. Buckley and Andrey A. Ptitsyn and Denis A. Reshetov and Krishanu Mukherjee and Tatiana P. Moroz and Yelena Bobkova and Fahong Yu and Vladimir V. Kapitonov and Jerzy Jurka and Yuriy V. Bobkov and Joshua J. Swore and David Orion Girardo and Alexander Fodor and Fedor Gusev and Rachel S Sanford and Rebecca Bruders and Ellen L. W. Kittler and Claudia E. Mills and Jonathan P Rast and Romain Derelle and Victor V. Solovyev and Fyodor A. Kondrashov and Billie J. Swalla and Jonathan V. Sweedler and Evgeny I. Rogaev and Kenneth M. Halanych and Andrea B. Kohn},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2014},
  volume={510},
  pages={109 - 114}
}
The origins of neural systems remain unresolved. In contrast to other basal metazoans, ctenophores (comb jellies) have both complex nervous and mesoderm-derived muscular systems. These holoplanktonic predators also have sophisticated ciliated locomotion, behaviour and distinct development. Here we present the draft genome of Pleurobrachia bachei, Pacific sea gooseberry, together with ten other ctenophore transcriptomes, and show that they are remarkably distinct from other animal genomes in… Expand
The phylogenetic position of ctenophores and the origin(s) of nervous systems
TLDR
It is argued that characters like neuropeptide signaling, ciliary photoreceptors, gap junctions and presynaptic molecules are consistent with a shared ancestry of nervous systems, however, that phylogenetic-tree construction artifacts may have placed ctenophores too deep in the metazoan tree. Expand
Independent origins of neurons and synapses: insights from ctenophores
  • L. Moroz, A. Kohn
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2016
TLDR
It is concluded that acetylcholine, serotonin, histamine, dopamine, octopamine and gamma-aminobutyric acid were recruited as transmitters in the neural systems in cnidarian and bilaterian lineages, suggesting that early neural systems might be peptidergic. Expand
Comparative neuroanatomy of ctenophores: Neural and muscular systems in Euplokamis dunlapae and related species
TLDR
The organization of neuromuscular systems in eight ctenophore species focusing on Euplokamis dunlapae is described, showing that even with substantial environmental differences, the basal organization of neural systems is conserved among c tenophores. Expand
Neuromuscular organization of the Ctenophore Pleurobrachia bachei
TLDR
Ctenophores significantly exceed what the authors currently know about other prebilaterian groups (placozoan, sponges, and cnidarians), and some basal bilaterians in terms of cell‐type specification and diversity. Expand
The genome of the contractile demosponge Tethya wilhelma and the evolution of metazoan neural signalling pathways
TLDR
Changes in gene content are consistent with the view that ctenophores and sponges are the earliest-branching metazoan lineages and provide additional support for the proposed clade of Placozoa/Cnidaria/Bilateria. Expand
Atlas of Neuromuscular Organization in the ctenophore Pleurobrachia bachei
TLDR
Ctenophores significantly exceed what the authors currently know about other prebilaterian groups (placozoan, sponges, and cnidarians), and some basal bilaterians in terms of cell type specification and diversity. Expand
Hemichordate genomes and deuterostome origins
TLDR
The draft genome sequences of two acorn worms are reported, identifying shared traits that were probably inherited from the last common deuterostome ancestor, and exploring evolutionary trajectories leading from this ancestor to hemichordates, echinoderms and chordates. Expand
Convergent evolution of neural systems in ctenophores
  • L. Moroz
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Journal of Experimental Biology
  • 2015
Neurons are defined as polarized secretory cells specializing in directional propagation of electrical signals leading to the release of extracellular messengers – features that enable them toExpand
Development of neuromuscular organization in the ctenophore Pleurobrachia bachei
TLDR
This study provides the first description of neuromuscular development in the enigmatic ctenophores and establishes the foundation for future research using emerging genomic tools and resources. Expand
Neural system and receptor diversity in the ctenophore Beroe abyssicola
TLDR
The obtained cell‐type atlas illustrates different examples of lineage‐specific innovations within these enigmatic marine animals and reveals the remarkable complexity of sensory and effector systems in this clade of basal Metazoa. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 94 REFERENCES
The Genome of the Ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and Its Implications for Cell Type Evolution
TLDR
The genome of the ctenophore the warty comb jelly or sea walnut, Mnemiopsis leidyi, is sequenced and it is concluded that c tenophores alone, not sponges or the clade consisting of both ctenphores and cnidarians, are the most basal extant animals. Expand
The homeodomain complement of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi suggests that Ctenophora and Porifera diverged prior to the ParaHoxozoa
TLDR
The first glimpse of the first sequenced ctenophore genome is provided and it is suggested that Porifera and Ctenophora were the first two extant lineages to diverge from the rest of animals. Expand
Rapid evolution of the compact and unusual mitochondrial genome in the ctenophore, Pleurobrachia bachei.
TLDR
The observed unique features of this mitochondrial genome suggest that nuclear and mitochondrial genomes have evolved at very different rates. Expand
Phylogenomics Revives Traditional Views on Deep Animal Relationships
TLDR
It is shown that the sponges (Porifera) are monophyletic and not paraphyletic as repeatedly proposed, thus undermining the idea that ancestral metazoans had a sponge-like body plan and that the most likely position for the ctenophores is together with the cnidarians in a "coelenterate" clade. Expand
Phylogenomics meets neuroscience: how many times might complex brains have evolved?
  • L. Moroz
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Acta biologica Hungarica
  • 2012
TLDR
To reconstruct the parallel evolution of nervous systems genomic approaches are essential to probe enigmatic neurons of basal metazoans, selected lophotrochozoans (e.g. phoronids, brachiopods) and deuterostomes. Expand
Assessing the root of bilaterian animals with scalable phylogenomic methods
  • A. Hejnol, M. Obst, +14 authors C. Dunn
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2009
TLDR
New sequence data and methods strongly uphold previous suggestions that Acoelomorpha is sister clade to all other bilaterian animals, find diminishing evidence for the placement of the enigmatic Xenoturbella within Deuterostomia, and place Cycliophora with Entoprocta and EctoproCTa. Expand
Concatenated Analysis Sheds Light on Early Metazoan Evolution and Fuels a Modern “Urmetazoon” Hypothesis
TLDR
The sum of morphological evidence, the secondary structure of mitochondrial ribosomal genes, and molecular sequence data from mitochondrial and nuclear genes that amass over 9,400 phylogenetically informative characters from 24 to 73 taxa are analyzed to provide evidence that Placozoa are basal relative to all other diploblast phyla and spark a modernized “urmetazoon” hypothesis. Expand
Neuronal Transcriptome of Aplysia: Neuronal Compartments and Circuitry
TLDR
This collection represents the largest database available for any member of the Lophotrochozoa and therefore provides additional insights into evolutionary strategies used by this highly successful diversified lineage, one of the three proposed superclades of bilateral animals. Expand
Broad phylogenomic sampling improves resolution of the animal tree of life
TLDR
This data reinforce several previously identified clades that split deeply in the animal tree, unambiguously resolve multiple long-standing issues for which there was strong conflicting support in earlier studies with less data, and provide molecular support for the monophyly of molluscs, a group long recognized by morphologists. Expand
Additional data to: Deep metazoan phylogeny: When different genes tell different stories
TLDR
The results show that the accuracy of phylogenetic inference may be improved substantially by selecting genes that evolve slowly across metazoan lineages and applying more realistic substitution models, and modifying gene sampling and taxonomic composition of the outgroup to construct three different yet well-supported phylogenies. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...