The Critical Importance of Retrieval for Learning

@article{Karpicke2008TheCI,
  title={The Critical Importance of Retrieval for Learning},
  author={Jeffrey D. Karpicke and Henry L. Roediger},
  journal={Science},
  year={2008},
  volume={319},
  pages={966 - 968}
}
Learning is often considered complete when a student can produce the correct answer to a question. In our research, students in one condition learned foreign language vocabulary words in the standard paradigm of repeated study-test trials. In three other conditions, once a student had correctly produced the vocabulary item, it was repeatedly studied but dropped from further testing, repeatedly tested but dropped from further study, or dropped from both study and test. Repeated studying after… 
The Effect of Retrieval Practice in Primary School Vocabulary Learning
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  • 2016
Although research shows that repetition increases second language vocabulary learning, only several studies have examined the long-term effects of increasing retrieval frequency in one learning
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  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
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Deliberate vocabulary study has mostly been studied within a strictly experimental framework of learning and memorization. More ecologically valid investigations embedded in existing study
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This study investigated the efficacy of retrieving EFL vocabulary from memory as a long-term retention strategy. Three learning treatments, rereading, recognizing and recalling target words, were
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TLDR
Recursion formats are suggested that for paired-associate learning of L2 vocabulary, recall formats are more effective than recognition for the acquisition of productive knowledge of orthography and recognition format are more desirable than recall when knowledge of spelling is not required.
The Testing Effect for Learning Principles and Procedures from Texts
ABSTRACT The authors explored whether a testing effect occurs not only for retention of facts but also for application of principles and procedures. For that purpose, 38 high school students either
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