The Critical Importance of Retrieval for Learning

  title={The Critical Importance of Retrieval for Learning},
  author={Jeffrey D. Karpicke and Henry L. Roediger},
  pages={966 - 968}
Learning is often considered complete when a student can produce the correct answer to a question. In our research, students in one condition learned foreign language vocabulary words in the standard paradigm of repeated study-test trials. In three other conditions, once a student had correctly produced the vocabulary item, it was repeatedly studied but dropped from further testing, repeatedly tested but dropped from further study, or dropped from both study and test. Repeated studying after… 
The Effect of Retrieval Practice in Primary School Vocabulary Learning
Summary The testing effect refers to the finding that retrieval practice leads to better long-term retention than additional study of course material. In the present study, we examined whether this
  • Tatsuya Nakata
  • Psychology, Linguistics
    Studies in Second Language Acquisition
  • 2016
Although research shows that repetition increases second language vocabulary learning, only several studies have examined the long-term effects of increasing retrieval frequency in one learning
Repeated testing produces superior transfer of learning relative to repeated studying.
  • A. C. Butler
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
  • 2010
Repeated testing produced superior retention and transfer on the final test relative to repeated studying, indicating that the mnemonic benefits of test-enhanced learning are not limited to the retention of the specific response tested during initial learning but rather extend to the transfer of knowledge in a variety of contexts.
Retrieval Practice Produces More Learning in Multiple-list Tests with Higher-Order Skills
Learning is usually thought to occur during episodes of studying, while the retrieval of information on testing simply serves to assess what was learned. Test-enhanced learning, or the use of tests
Effectiveness in L2 Vocabulary Study – A Classroom-based Investigation of Deliberate Learning
  • P. Pauwels
  • Education
    Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics
  • 2021
Deliberate vocabulary study has mostly been studied within a strictly experimental framework of learning and memorization. More ecologically valid investigations embedded in existing study
Recall Efficacy in EFL Learning
This study investigated the efficacy of retrieving EFL vocabulary from memory as a long-term retention strategy. Three learning treatments, rereading, recognizing and recalling target words, were
Effects of retrieval formats on second language vocabulary learning
Recursion formats are suggested that for paired-associate learning of L2 vocabulary, recall formats are more effective than recognition for the acquisition of productive knowledge of orthography and recognition format are more desirable than recall when knowledge of spelling is not required.
The Testing Effect for Learning Principles and Procedures from Texts
ABSTRACT The authors explored whether a testing effect occurs not only for retention of facts but also for application of principles and procedures. For that purpose, 38 high school students either


Test-Enhanced Learning
Investigation of the testing effect with educationally relevant materials and whether testing facilitates learning only because tests offer an opportunity to restudy material concluded that testing is a powerful means of improving learning, not just assessing it.
The influence of retrieval on retention
The results reject the hypothesis that a successful retrieval is beneficial only to the extent that it provides another study experience, as performing a memory retrieval (TTST condition) led to better performance than pure study (pure ST condition).
The Power of Testing Memory: Basic Research and Implications for Educational Practice
This article selectively review laboratory studies that reveal the power of testing in improving retention and then turns to studies that demonstrate the basic effects in educational settings, including the related concepts of dynamic testing and formative assessment.
The dynamics of learning and allocation of study time to a region of proximal learning.
Empirically determined information uptake functions revealed steep initial learning for easy items with little subsequent increase, suggesting that the strategy people had used, when given free choice, was largely appropriate.
Some of the questions currently debated in the field of memory consolidation and reconsolidation, the molecular and anatomical requirements for both processes and, finally, their functional relationship are discussed.
The promise and perils of self-regulated study
The research on the decisions people make, for better or worse, when deciding what to study, how long toStudy, and how to study is reviewed.