The Creatures Global Digital Ecosystem

@article{Cliff1999TheCG,
  title={The Creatures Global Digital Ecosystem},
  author={Dave Cliff and Stephen Grand},
  journal={Artificial Life},
  year={1999},
  volume={5},
  pages={77-93}
}
An artificial life entertainment-software product called Creatures was released in Europe in late 1996 and in the United States and Japan in mid-1997. When installed on a domestic computer (PC or Macintosh), each Creatures CD-ROM creates a virtual world in which autonomous software agents exist. The agents, known as norns, interact with the human user, with each other, and with objects in their virtual world. Each norn coordinates perception and action via its own modular recurrent neural… 
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