The Craniolingual Morphology of Waterfowl (Aves, Anseriformes) and Its Relationship with Feeding Mode Revealed Through Contrast-Enhanced X-Ray Computed Tomography and 2D Morphometrics

@article{Li2015TheCM,
  title={The Craniolingual Morphology of Waterfowl (Aves, Anseriformes) and Its Relationship with Feeding Mode Revealed Through Contrast-Enhanced X-Ray Computed Tomography and 2D Morphometrics},
  author={Zhiheng Li and Julia A. Clarke},
  journal={Evolutionary Biology},
  year={2015},
  volume={43},
  pages={12-25}
}
Within Anseriformes, waterfowl (ducks, geese, and swans) exhibit three specialized feeding modes that are distinctive among Aves: filter-feeding with fine and dense keratinous lamellae on a flat, mediolaterally expanded bill; cropping or grazing vegetation with large and robust lamellae with a dorsoventrally expanded bill; and sharp lamellae associated with a narrow bill used in acquiring mixed invertebrates and fish underwater mainly by grasping. Here we assess morphometric variation in… 
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