The Costs of Wind's Variability: Is There a Threshold?

@article{DeCarolis2005TheCO,
  title={The Costs of Wind's Variability: Is There a Threshold?},
  author={J. DeCarolis and D. Keith},
  journal={The Electricity Journal},
  year={2005},
  volume={18},
  pages={69-77}
}
Managing wind's intermittency entails costs even when wind power supplies a small fraction of load. If electric power systems evolve efficiently as wind capacity grows, the costs of managing intermittency will grow smoothly with increasing penetration, allowing wind power to provide deep reductions in CO 2 emissions at costs that are competitive with other mitigation options. 
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