The Cost-Effectiveness of Clozapine

  title={The Cost-Effectiveness of Clozapine},
  author={Stephen Morris and Thomas Hogan and Alistair Mcguire},
  journal={Clinical Drug Investigation},
SummaryTreatment-resistant schizophrenia is a severely debilitating and costly disease. While clozapine is reported to be an effective therapy for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, it is nevertheless largely underutilised. A review of published cost-effectiveness studies of clozapine conducted in the USA, UK, Sweden and Canada, and employing a variety of study designs, reveals consistent reporting of clinical efficacy, cost and cost-effectiveness findings in favour of clozapine over… 

Pharmacoeconomics of Clozapine, Risperidone and Olanzapine

While all 3 antipsychotics improved clinical outcomes, the literature suggests that clozapine is cost effective in patients with treatment-refractory symptoms, whereas risperidone and olanzapine may be cost neutral.

Cost of the Illness of Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia

Treatment with clozapine is not associated with a significant increase in the overall treatment cost, in the short term, however, there is a significant reduction in direct treatment costs.

Where to Position Clozapine: Re-Examining the Evidence

Schizophrenia continues to represent a treatment challenge, with many people demonstrating suboptimal response and poor functional outcome, but in light of existing evidence this warrants re-examination of clozapine.

Outcomes for schizophrenia patients with clozapine treatment: how good does it get?

The recommendation of prolonged clozapine trials to improve cost-effectiveness in the most seriously unwell schizophrenia patients is supported, and continuing treatment was associated with real-world improvements in functional and clinical outcomes.

Clozapine: the first atypical antipsychotic

The rapid increase in the distribution of clozapine dramatically stopped in 1974, when 16 patients developed agranulocytosis under clozAPine treatment and eight of them died, while in the German speaking countries, due to the intervention of several renowned psychiatrists, it was not withdrawn and since then is prescribed under precautionary restrictions.

The newer antipsychotics: evidence for cost-effectiveness and policy implications

There are ethical, clinical and political grounds for increasing funding for the treatment of schizophrenia to take advantage of the biggest revolution in antipsychotic therapy since the launch of the first neuroleptics.

Cost analysis of treating schizophrenia with amisulpride: Naturalistic mirror image study

Costs of Inpatient Care for Schiaophrenia at Khon Kaen Rajanagarindra Psychiatric Hospital

Factors associated with the total direct cost for inpatient schizophrenia were gender, age, type of payment scheme and behavior under surveillance.

Ökonomie und Arzneimittelsicherheit

Bedingt durch wachsenden gesundheitspolitischen Finanzierungsdruck gewinnen pharmakookonomische Studien gerade im Bereich der kostenintensiven psychiatrischen Versorgung zunehmend an Bedeutung wirklich hohere Lebensqualitat fur die Betroffenen und eroffnen grosere Rehabilitationschancen.



Cost‐effectiveness of clozapine treatment in therapy‐refractory schizophrenia

This study shows that 18 months of clozapine treatment results in an improvement of symptoms and social functioning in approximately 70% of treatment‐refractory schizophrenic patients, compared with treatment with conventional neuroleptics during a similar period of time.

Clinical Efficacy of Clozapine in Treatment-Refractory Schizophrenia: An Overview

  • J. Kane
  • Psychology, Medicine
    British Journal of Psychiatry
  • 1992
Clozapine appears to be the only well established alternative for patients with schizophrenia who fail to respond to antipsychotic medications and has important advantages in terms of its reduced propensity to produce extrapyramidal side-effects.

Cost effectiveness of clozapine in neuroleptic-resistant schizophrenia.

Clozapine produced a marked improvement in Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale total scores as well as positive negative symptom scores, Global Assessment scale scores, Quality of Life Scale scores, work functioning, capacity for independent living, and rehospitalization rates.

Cost-effectiveness of clozapine for treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients.

Clozapine therapy for treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients resulted in decreases in psychopathology and reductions in mental health service costs and economic benefits were observed after two years of clozAPine therapy.

The pharmacoeconomics of clozapine: a review.

Clozapine has been found to produce superior outcome compared with prior treatment with typical neuroleptic drugs in Neuroleptic-resistant schizophrenia in dimensions that can be readily transformed into cost-utility measures such as decreased psychopathology, improved cognition, decreased rehospitalization, decreased suicide attempts, and better work function.

Cost-effectiveness of clozapine

As a naturalistic study, this data provide valuable information on the cost-effectiveness of clozapine in the UK and could be applied in a community setting or in the study of another atypical neuroleptic.

Assessment of Costs and Benefits of Drug Therapy for Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia in the United Kingdom

An analysis was conducted on the basis of available data to assess the economic consequences of clozapine therapy for people with moderate to severe schizophrenia in long-stay institutions or staffed

Dimensions of Outcome with Clozapine

  • H. Y. Meltzer
  • Psychology, Medicine
    British Journal of Psychiatry
  • 1992
There was significant improvement in positive symptoms, some negative symptoms, quality of life, some types of cognitive function, and tardive dyskinesia following clozapine administration to neuroleptic-resistant schizophrenic patients.

Clozapine's effectiveness for patients in state hospitals: results from a randomized trial.

Compared with usual care, clozapine was associated with significantly greater reductions in side effects, disruptiveness, and hospitalization, but was not more effective in reducing symptoms or improving quality of life.

Clozapine for the treatment-resistant schizophrenic. A double-blind comparison with chlorpromazine.

In this relatively brief study, the apparently increased comparative risk of agranulocytosis requires that the use of clozapine be limited to selected treatment-resistant patients.