The Continuing Challenges of Leprosy

@article{Scollard2006TheCC,
  title={The Continuing Challenges of Leprosy},
  author={David M Scollard and Linda B Adams and Thomas P. Gillis and James L. Krahenbuhl and Richard W. Truman and D. L. Williams},
  journal={Clinical Microbiology Reviews},
  year={2006},
  volume={19},
  pages={338 - 381}
}
SUMMARY Leprosy is best understood as two conjoined diseases. The first is a chronic mycobacterial infection that elicits an extraordinary range of cellular immune responses in humans. The second is a peripheral neuropathy that is initiated by the infection and the accompanying immunological events. The infection is curable but not preventable, and leprosy remains a major global health problem, especially in the developing world, publicity to the contrary notwithstanding. Mycobacterium leprae… 
Leprosy and the Human Genome
TLDR
Identifying and functionally exploring the genetic and immunological factors that underlie human susceptibility to leprosy have yielded important insights into M. leprae pathogenesis and are likely to advance the understanding of the immune response to other pathogenic mycobacteria.
Pauci- and Multibacillary Leprosy: Two Distinct, Genetically Neglected Diseases
TLDR
The bibliographical search revealed that improved study designs are needed to identify genes associated with leprosy polarization and it is shown that the latter approach to be the most powerful design for the identification of genetic polarization determinants.
Immunology of leprosy.
TLDR
This work discusses this dichotomy in the light of current knowledge of cytokines, Th subpopulations and regulatory T cells taking part in each leprosy presentation, and proposes a new serological test for diagnosis in endemic areas.
Emerging Concepts of Adaptive Immunity in Leprosy
TLDR
Studying these important components of the adaptive immune system in leprosy patients is essential for better understanding of immune function, correlate(s) the immunity and mechanism of its containment.
[Leprosy, a pillar of human genetics of infectious diseases].
TLDR
Novel lights on the pathogenesis of many common diseases could eventually emerge from the detailed understanding of a disease of the shadows, as genome-wide studies have identified new pathophysiological pathways which importance is only beginning to be understood.
The influence of innate and adaptative immune responses on the differential clinical outcomes of leprosy
TLDR
The innate and adaptive immune responses, and their interactions, that are known to affect pathogenesis and influence the clinical outcome of leprosy are discussed.
Update on Genetics of Leprosy
TLDR
Individual genetic factors have a strong influence on the acquisition of or protection against leprosy, since the limited genetic diversity observed among M. leprae strains is not a significant factor for the development and the clinical course of disease.
Therapy of Leprosy- Present Strategies and Recent Trends with Immunotherapy
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The various issues related to treatment, drug resistance, and the possible steps of complete eradication of this stigmatized disease from the world are reviewed.
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Current phylogenetic and biogeographic models derived from molecular biology are reviewed and their implications for the global development of TB and leprosy, past and present are explored.
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TLDR
A variety of mechanisms of innate and adaptive immunity have been identified and postulated to play a role in the development of cellular immunity in leprosy and what triggers this remarkable spectrum of cellular immune responses to this organism in humans is still not fully understood.
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