The Conservatism of Emoji: Work, Affect, and Communication

  title={The Conservatism of Emoji: Work, Affect, and Communication},
  author={Luke Stark and Kate Crawford},
  journal={Social Media + Society},
This piece examines emoji as conduits for affective labor in the social networks of informational capitalism. Emoji, ubiquitous digital images that can appear in text messages, emails, and social media chat platforms, are rich in social, cultural, and economic significance. This article examines emoji as historical, social, and cultural objects, and as examples of skeuomorphism and of technical standardization. Now superseded as explicitly monetized objects by other graphics designed for… 
Emojis and Law: contextualized flexibility of meaning in cyber communication
ABSTRACT Because some sentiments simply cannot be verbalized, the written message lacks rendered intonation and the embodied dynamics of expressed feeling. With the rise of emails and other means of
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This article focuses on the use of emojis by young Danes. We argue that emojis have at least three functions: as a form of guidance to understand posts and avoid misunderstandings (markers of
Emojis as Tools for Emotion Work: Communicating Affect in Text Messages
Emojis are pictures commonly used in texting. The use and type of emojis has increased in recent years; particularly emojis that are not faces, but rather objects. While prior work on emojis of faces
The Influence of Emoji on the Internet Text Perception
The aim of the work is to find the dependencies between the use of emojis in text messages and the extent to which the messages attract users’ attention while viewing a page, especially in Russian-speaking Internet community.
One Loveheart at a Time: The Language of Emoji and the Building of Affective Community in the Digital Medieval Studies Environment
It is argued that Slack creates virtual spaces for informal interaction which, when embraced by a community, can substitute for the accidental collisions that enable collaboration in shared physical spaces.
Perceived Usefulness of Emoticons, Emojis, and Stickers in Text Messaging: Effect of gender and Text-Messaging Dependency
The authors conducted a survey targeting 300 Japanese young adults to investigate the features of emoticons, emojis, and stickers from the viewpoint of their perceived usefulness and confirmed the effects of gender and text-messaging dependency on symbol usefulness ratings.
How Sight Becomes Subject: Cultural Image Design in the Age of Digital Rhetoric
by Lucy Anne Johnson, Ph.D. Washington State University May 2018 Chair: Victor Villanueva This dissertation challenges machine-based understandings of digital rhetoric and literacy. Rather than focus
"A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words, and so is an Emojis " Emojisfication of Language: A Pragmatic Analysis of Facebook Discourse
This research study aims to examine language change occurring in written discourse due to increase in the usage of emojis and the way emojis, in comparison to words, are performing communicative
The Role of Emojis and Emoticons in Enhancing Interpersonal Communication through Messenger and WhatsApp Applications
Communication process is not  only speaking or writing words. It is very a complex matter that requires factors affective  such as language, grammar, experience and non-verbal elements. Sign language
Using Emojis: Self-Presentation and Different Meaning Creation Approaches
  • Sibel Onursoy
  • Education
    Galatasaray Üniversitesi İleti-ş-im Dergisi
  • 2018
Nowadays visuality is increasing. One of the remarkable developments in 2015 was that the emoji ‘ 😂 ’, the smiley with tears of happiness- was chosen the “word of the year” although it was just a


Functions of the Nonverbal in CMC: Emoticons and Illocutionary Force
The term 'emoticons'—short for 'emotion icons'—refers to graphic signs, such as the smiley face, that often accompany computer-mediated textual communication. They are most often characterized as
The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling.
This book examines two groups of public-contact workers: flight attendants and bill collectors and finds that an emotional laborer can become estranged not only from her own expressions of feeling, but also from what she actually feels.
Intimate Objects : A site for affective evaluation
This paper presents Intimate Objects -technological devices for communicating intimacy between couples - as a site for exploring evaluation of affective designs, and discusses the "nineteen hearts" problem of quantifying the perhaps unquantifiable.
Visceral Abstractions
This essay reads a series of social or capitalist abstractions: the iconic smiley face; Karl Marx’s notoriously tricky concept of abstract, value-constituting labor; and the “soldier’s body” qua
Cold Intimacies: The Making of Emotional Capitalism
This chapter discusses the rise of Homo Sentimentalis and the role that emotion plays in the development of a person's identity.
About the history of sexuality.
  • E. Shorter
  • Psychology
    Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica : a Magyar Pszichofarmakologiai Egyesulet lapja = official journal of the Hungarian Association of Psychopharmacology
  • 2007
After decades of pioneering work in the neurosciences, the fundamental importance of brain biology in the human condition has now become evident and one of the new syntheses will draw upon neurochemistry and neurophysiology, and it is to the great credit of the Hungarian neuroscience that pharmacologist Joseph Knoll has now ventured a first attempt.
The Moveable Typewriter: How Chinese Typists Developed Predictive Text during the Height of Maoism
plished an astonishing feat. Using a mechanical Chinese typewriter, the operator typed 4,730 characters in one hour, setting a new record just shy of eighty characters per minute.1 While seemingly
Skeuomorphs and Cultural Algorithms
Failing a general theory of how evolutionary processes relate emergently with one another across hierarchical levels through the media of DNA, culture, and technology,keuomorphs should be curious yet cautious when they are removed from their natural contexts to use them in the artificial world of silicon.
The validity and practicality of sun-reactive skin types I through VI.
It was decided that a brief personal interview regarding the history of the person's unburn and suntan experience was one approach to estirnate the skin tolerance to uitraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure.