The Conservatism of Emoji: Work, Affect, and Communication

@article{Stark2015TheCO,
  title={The Conservatism of Emoji: Work, Affect, and Communication},
  author={Luke Stark and Kate Crawford},
  journal={Social Media + Society},
  year={2015},
  volume={1}
}
This piece examines emoji as conduits for affective labor in the social networks of informational capitalism. Emoji, ubiquitous digital images that can appear in text messages, emails, and social media chat platforms, are rich in social, cultural, and economic significance. This article examines emoji as historical, social, and cultural objects, and as examples of skeuomorphism and of technical standardization. Now superseded as explicitly monetized objects by other graphics designed for… 

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