The Consequence of Tree Pests and Diseases for Ecosystem Services

  title={The Consequence of Tree Pests and Diseases for Ecosystem Services},
  author={Ian L. Boyd and Peter Freer-Smith and Christopher A. Gilligan and H. Charles J. Godfray},
Background Trees are major components of many terrestrial ecosystems and are grown in managed plantations and orchards to provide a variety of economically important products, including timber, pulp, fiber, and food. They are subject to a wide range of pests and diseases, of which the most important causative agents are viruses, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, and insect herbivores. Research on tree pests and diseases has had a historical focus on trees of direct economic importance. However, some… 

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