The Composition and Morphology of Amphiboles from the Rainy Creek Complex, Near Libby, Montana

  title={The Composition and Morphology of Amphiboles from the Rainy Creek Complex, Near Libby, Montana},
  author={Gregory P. Meeker and Amy M. Bern and Isabelle K. Brownfield and Heather A Lowers and Stephen J. Sutley and Todd M. Hoefen and J. Sam Vance},
  journal={American Mineralogist},
  pages={1955 - 1969}
Abstract Thirty samples of amphibole-rich rock from the largest mined vermiculite deposit in the world in the Rainy Creek alkaline-ultramafic complex near Libby, Montana, were collected and analyzed. The amphibole-rich rock is the suspected cause of an abnormally high number of asbestos-related diseases reported in the residents of Libby, and in former mine and mill workers. The amphibole-rich samples were analyzed to determine composition and morphology of both fibrous and non-fibrous… 
Characterization of historical amphibole samples from the former vermiculite mine near Libby, Montana, U.S.A
To determine if the composition or morphology of amphiboles occurring in the Rainy Creek vermiculite deposit near Libby, Montana, has changed as the deposit has been mined over the last 70 years, we
Examination of Libby, Montana, Fill Material for Background Levels of Amphibole from the Rainy Creek Complex Using Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis
Natural background levels of Libby-type amphibole in the sediment of the Libby valley in Montana have not, up to this point, been determined. The purpose of this report is to provide the preliminary
Amphibole forensics: Using the composition of amphiboles to determine their source, the Libby, Montana, example
As part of a larger on-going research project, we found amphiboles in soils in Libby, Montana, that were derived from both the former vermiculite mine near Libby and other sources. SEM-EDS spectra of
Synthesis and characterization of amphiboles along the tremolite–glaucophane join
Abstract Actinolite and glaucophane are the principal amphiboles in greenschist- and blueschist-facies metamafic rocks, respectively, and constitute an important mineral pair for deducing the
A Review of Scientific Literature Examining the Mining History, Geology, Mineralogy, and Amphibole Asbestos Health Effects of the Rainy Creek Igneous Complex, Libby, Montana, USA
The past 90 yr of scientific research directed on multiple aspects of the unique geology and environmental health issues surrounding the vermiculite deposit found at Libby, MT, shows that the majority of the amphibole mineral species present may not be any of the frog species currently regulated by government agencies.
Libby Amphibole Contamination in Tree Bark Surrounding Historical Vermiculite Processing Facilities
Over a 70-year period, a mine near Libby, MT supplied nearly 80% of the world’s vermiculite. Raw vermiculite, which was contaminated with naturally occurring amphibole in veins throughout the
Metamorphic Amphiboles: Composition and Coexistence
Amphiboles have long been key players in metamorphic petrology. The concept of facies was developed for rocks of basaltic composition (Eskola 1920, 1939; Fyfe et al. 1958), and within this concept,
Amphibole—a key indicator mineral for petrogenesis of the Purulia carbonatite, West Bengal, India
The Purulia carbonatite of West Bengal, India is a dyke occurring within the 100 km long South Purulia Shear Zone (SPSZ), which marks the boundary between the Singhbhum Group of Rocks and the
Asbestiform tremolite within the Holocene late pyroclastic deposits of Colli Albani volcano (Latium, Italy): occurrence and crystal chemistry
This work relates the occurrence and the characterization of fibrous tremolite within the latest pyroclastic deposits of the Colli Albani (Alban Hills) volcano, to the south-east of Rome (Italy).
Site occupancy in richterite-winchite from Libby, Montana, USA, by FTIR spectroscopy
Abstract Three natural amphibole samples collected from the former vermiculite mine near Libby, Montana, USA, have been analysed by Rietveld X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) refinement and Fourier


The Rainy Creek Alkaline-Ultramafic Igneous Complex near Libby, Montana. I: Ultramafic Rocks and Fenite
The Rainy Creek complex represents a composite of successive intrusions of igneous rocks emplaced into the Precambrian Belt Series, probably in middle Cretaceous time. The succession began with the
Vermiculite, hydrobiotite, and biotite in the Rainy Creek igneous complex near Libby, Montana
Abstract Vermiculite and hydrobiotite both occur as alteration products of biotite pyroxenite near Libby, Montana. Hydrothermal and weathering studies and new chemical analyses by C. O. Ingamells
Mineralogy of amphiboles and 1:1 layer silicates
This article reviews briefly the ways in which mineralogists and crystal chemist represent complex silicate structures: the basic nomenclature for amphiboles, and the 1:1 layer silicates; the
s with Program, 22, 4254. Canil, D.D., Virgo, D., and Scarfe, C.M. (1990) Oxidation state of mantle xenoliths from British Columbia, Canada. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrofogy, 104, 453-462.
Nomenclature of Amphiboles
  • B. Leake
  • Geology
    Mineralogical Magazine
  • 1978
The introduction of a fifth amphibole group, the Na-Ca-Mg-Fe-Mn-Li group, defined by 0.50 < B(Mg, Fe2+, Mn2+, Li) < 1.50 and 0.50 < = B(Ca, Na) < = 1.50 apfu (atoms per formula unit), with members
Association of Tremolite Habit with Biological Potential: Preliminary Report
Tremolite is an amphibole mineral which occurs naturally in three distinct morphological forms or mineral habits. It may occur as asbestos, splintery fibres or in massive crystalline deposits.
This definition clearly states that there may be several types of fibrous amphiboles. Therefore, according to Dana, “fibrous” and “asbestos” or “asbestiform” are not synonymous. Asbestos is a
Distinguishing between Amphibole Asbestos Fibers and Elongate Cleavage Fragments of their Non-Asbestos Analogues
In 1986, a letter of correspondence to the New England Journal of Medicine (Germine, 1986) communicated that 2–4% tremolite asbestos was present in a crushed carbonate marble, marketed as a sand to
Crystal chemistry of K-richterite-richterite-tremolite solid solutions a SEM, EMP, XRD, HRTEM and IR study
Solid solutions in the ternary K-richterite-richterite-tremolite (K x Na y □ 1-x-y )(Na x+y Ca 2-x-y ) 2 Mg 5 [Si 8 O 22 /(OH) 2 ] have been synthesized at 200 MPa and 800°C using cold-seal vessels,