The Composite Genome of the Legume Symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti

  title={The Composite Genome of the Legume Symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti},
  author={Francis Galibert and Turlough M. Finan and Sharon R. Long and Alfred P{\"u}hler and Pia Abola and Frédéric Ampe and Fr{\'e}d{\'e}rique Barloy-Hubler and Melanie J. Barnett and Anke Becker and Pierre Boistard and Gordana Bothe and Marc Boutry and Leah Bowser and Jens Buhrmester and {\'E}douard Cadieu and Delphine Capela and Patrick S. G. Chain and Alison Cowie and Ronald W. Davis and Stéphane Dréano and Nancy A. Federspiel and Robert F. Fisher and Stéphanie Gloux and Thérèse Godrie and Andr{\'e} Goffeau and B. Golding and J{\'e}r{\^o}me Gouzy and Mani Gurjal and Ismael Hernández-Lucas and Andrea Hong and Lucas Huizar and Richard W. Hyman and Ted Jones and Daniel Kahn and Michael L. Kahn and Sue Kalman and David H. Keating and Ernö Kiss and Caridad Komp and Val{\'e}rie Lelaure and David Masuy and Curtis J. Palm and Melicent C. Peck and T. Pohl and Daniel Portetelle and Bénédicte Purnelle and U. Ramsperger and Raymond Surzycki and Patricia Th{\'e}bault and Micheline Vandenbol and Frank-J{\"o}rg Vorh{\"o}lter and Stefan Weidner and Derek H. Wells and Kim Wong and Kuo-Chen Yeh and Jacques Batut},
  pages={668 - 672}
The scarcity of usable nitrogen frequently limits plant growth. A tight metabolic association with rhizobial bacteria allows legumes to obtain nitrogen compounds by bacterial reduction of dinitrogen (N2) to ammonium (NH4 +). We present here the annotated DNA sequence of the α-proteobacteriumSinorhizobium meliloti, the symbiont of alfalfa. The tripartite 6.7-megabase (Mb) genome comprises a 3.65-Mb chromosome, and 1.35-Mb pSymA and 1.68-Mb pSymB megaplasmids. Genome sequence analysis indicates… 
Novel methods of manipulating the Sinorhizobium meliloti genome and studying the effects of denitrification on symbiotic nitrogen fixation
To exploit the recently available genome sequence of S.meliloti 1021, a method to clone genes from the S. meliloti genome using bacteriophage lambda integrative is developed.
Genomic and Functional Diversity of the Sinorhizobial Model Group
The genomics of natural isolates has enabled us to uncover the nature of the high polymorphism, shedding light on the connection between the genetic diversity and functions related to symbiotic interaction, nutrients utilization and tolerance to challenging conditions in soils.
Population Genomics of the Facultatively Mutualistic Bacteria Sinorhizobium meliloti and S. medicae
Deep sequence coverage was used to characterize genomic diversity at the nucleotide level among 12 Sinorhizobium medicae and 32 S. meliloti strains and found that horizontal gene transfer between these species was confined almost exclusively to plasmid genes.
Genomics insights into symbiotic nitrogen fixation.
Genome Analysis of Mesorhizobium loti : A Symbiotic Partner to Lotus japonicus
By the symbiotic nitrogen fixation process, bacteria of the family Rhizobiaceae convert atmospheric dinitrogen to ammonia, which can be effectively utilized by host legume plants, which contributes significantly to global nitrogen cycles and agricultural practice.
Genomic Diversity and Evolution of Rhizobia
Development of a Functional Genomics Platform for Sinorhizobium meliloti: Construction of an ORFeome
A strategy for genetic analysis of S. meliloti on a genomic scale and the successful implementation of the first step of this strategy by constructing a set of plasmids representing 100% of the 6,317 annotated ORFs cloned into a mobilizable plasmid by using efficient PCR and recombination protocols.
Nucleotide sequence and predicted functions of the entire Sinorhizobium meliloti pSymA megaplasmid
The complete 1,354,226-nt sequence of pSymA, which contains genes likely to be involved in nitrogen and carbon metabolism, transport, stress, and resistance responses, and other functions that give S. meliloti an advantage in its specialized niche.
The Determinants of the Actinorhizal Symbiosis
The present review explores some recently published approaches aimed at identifying bacterial symbiotic determinants and reveals symbiosis-associated genes such as nif, hup, suf and shc to be spread around the genomes.


Molecular basis of symbiosis between Rhizobium and legumes
The complete nucleotide sequence and gene complement of the plasmid from Rhizobium sp.
Complete genome structure of the nitrogen-fixing symbiotic bacterium Mesorhizobium loti.
  • T. Kaneko, Y. Nakamura, S. Tabata
  • Biology
    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes
  • 2000
The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of a symbiotic bacterium Mesorhizobium loti strain MAFF303099 was determined and suggested that the symbiotic island as well as the plasmids originated and were transmitted from other genetic systems.
Transcription patterns of Rhizobium meliloti symbiotic plasmid pSym: identification of nifA-independent fix genes
A systematic survey of transcription of a large region of the Rhizobium meliloti symbiotic plasmid pSym led to the discovery of two new sequences induced during symbiosis, one linked to the known nitrogen fixation (nif-fix) gene cluster, and its expression depended on the nifA gene product.
Potential Symbiosis-Specific Genes Uncovered by Sequencing a 410-Kilobase DNA Region of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum Chromosome
The physical and genetic map of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum chromosome revealed that nitrogen fixation and nodulation genes are clustered and several genes that seem to encode transport systems for ferric citrate, molybdate, or carbon sources are found.
Rhizobium meliloti genes involved in sulfate activation: the two copies of nodPQ and a new locus, saa.
The existence in R. meliloti of a third locus for ATP sulfurylase and APS kinase activities is suggested, and a new locus saa (sulfur amino acid) is found, which may also encode these activities.
Host-plant invasion by rhizobia.
Many nod loci are involved in the synthesis and secretion of Nod-factors, a family of complex lipo-chito-oligosaccharides that initiate division of nodule meristems and permit entry of rhizobia into the host-plant.
Molecular Basis of Symbiotic Promiscuity
It is suggested that restricted host ranges are limited to specific niches and represent specialization of widespread and more ancestral promiscuous symbioses.
Complete genome sequence of Caulobacter crescentus
C. crescentus is, to the authors' knowledge, the first free-living α-class proteobacterium to be sequenced and will serve as a foundation for exploring the biology of this group of bacteria, which includes the obligate endosymbiont and human pathogen Rickettsia prowazekii, the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and the bovine andhuman pathogen Brucella abortus.
Megaplasmid pRme2011a of Sinorhizobium meliloti Is Not Required for Viability
Subsequent Southern blot, Eckhardt gel, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analyses were consistent with the hypothesis that the resultant strain was indeed missing pRme2011a and grew as well as the wild-type strain but was unable to use a number of substrates as a sole source of carbon on defined media.
Reiterated DNA sequences in Rhizobium and Agrobacterium spp.
Analysis of the two Rhizobium strains indicated that DNA reiteration is not confined to the chromosome or to some plasmids but is a property of the whole genome, which is a general characteristic of eucaryotic genomes.