The Company's Chinese Pirates: How the Dutch East India Company Tried to Lead a Coalition of Pirates to War against China, 1621-1662

@article{Andrade2004TheCC,
  title={The Company's Chinese Pirates: How the Dutch East India Company Tried to Lead a Coalition of Pirates to War against China, 1621-1662},
  author={Tonio Adam Andrade},
  journal={Journal of World History},
  year={2004},
  volume={15},
  pages={415 - 444}
}
  • T. Andrade
  • Published 16 May 2005
  • History
  • Journal of World History
When the Dutch arrived in East Asia in the early seventeenth century, they had trouble persuading Chinese officials to grant them trade privileges. Yet these same officials gave official titles to Chinese pirates as part of a "summon and appease" (zhaofu) policy in the hope that the pirates would abandon crime for more civilized pursuits. After a decade of frustrations, the Dutch decided to take a page from the pirates' playbook and tried to unite the pirates to attack China. The pirate war… 
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