The Color of Discipline: Sources of Racial and Gender Disproportionality in School Punishment

@article{Skiba2000TheCO,
  title={The Color of Discipline: Sources of Racial and Gender Disproportionality in School Punishment},
  author={R. Skiba and R. S. Michael and Abra Carroll Nardo and R. Peterson},
  journal={The Urban Review},
  year={2000},
  volume={34},
  pages={317-342}
}
The disproportionate discipline of African-American students has been extensively documented; yet the reasons for those disparities are less well understood. Drawing upon one year of middle-school disciplinary data for an urban school district, we explored three of the most commonly offered hypotheses for disproportionate discipline based on gender, race, and socioeconomic status. Racial and gender disparities in office referrals, suspensions, and expulsions were somewhat more robust than… Expand

Tables from this paper

Examining racial/ethnic disparities in school discipline in the context of student-reported behavior infractions
Abstract Although traditional methodologies of measuring racial/ethnic disparities in the use of exclusionary discipline have provided overwhelming evidence that students of color are far more likelyExpand
School Suspension in Florida: The Interactive Effects of Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Academic Achievement
Abstract A vast body of research demonstrates that the consequences of the “criminalization” of school discipline are not racially equitable, and Black and Hispanic students are more likely thanExpand
Interventions to Address Racial/Ethnic Disparities in School Discipline: Can Systems Reform Be Race-Neutral?
More than 50 years since Brown v. Board of Education, the over-representation of African American students in suspension and expulsion remains as one of the most pressing areas of inequity inExpand
Alternate Realities: Racially Disparate Discipline in Classrooms and Schools and Its Effects on Black and Brown Students.
This study examines the Civil Rights Data Collection of 2014, consisting of 49,605,534 students from 95,635 public schools covering grades from Kindergarten to 12 grade. The primary focus of thisExpand
Girls Behaving Badly? Race, Gender, and Subjective Evaluation in the Discipline of African American Girls
School disciplinary processes are an important mechanism of inequality in education. Most prior research in this area focuses on the significantly higher rates of punishment among African AmericanExpand
Race and Discipline at a Racially Mixed Suburban High School: Status, Capital, and the Practice of Organizational Routines1
AbstractIn this article, we draw on extensive research from a well-resourced and diverse suburban school district to illustrate how racial inequality becomes embedded in school disciplinary routinesExpand
Assessing the Odds: Disproportional Discipline Practices and Implications for Educational Stakeholders.
One frequently held assumption found within the school discipline literature suggests that students of color- particularly African American, male, low-income populations- are at an increased risk ofExpand
Homogeneity and Inequality: School Discipline Inequality and the Role of Racial Composition
Abstract:Research consistently demonstrates that black students are disproportionately subject to behavioral sanctions, yet little is known about contextual variation. This paper explores theExpand
Race and the politics of educational exclusion: explaining the persistence of disproportionate disciplinary practices in an urban school district
ABSTRACT Educational research has established a link between zero tolerance disciplinary policies and increases in racial disproportionality in suspensions and expulsions of students of color. ThisExpand
The Psychology of Disproportionality: Minority Placement in Context.
Racial disparities in special and gifted education cannot be understood independently of a broad legacy of racial inequity woven into American public education. The results of a qualitative studyExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 88 REFERENCES
The Crime of Punishment: Racial and Gender Disparities in the Use of Corporal Punishment in U.S. Public Schools
Anecdotal evidence has long suggested that boys in general and African American males in particular are disproportionately represented among students who receive corporal punishment (CP) in school.Expand
Facing the Consequences: An Examination of Racial Discrimination in U
In 1999, community organizations in several U.S. cities studied their local school districts to determine how they measured up in terms of racial justice. Using the computerized Racial Justice ReportExpand
The Social Construction of School Punishment: Racial Disadvantage Out of Universalistic Process
Black adolescents are much more likely to run afoul of the juvenile justice system than are similar white adolescents, even though the two groups self-report similar rates of offending. Within publicExpand
Race and Gender Bias in the Administration of Corporal Punishment.
The disciplinary actions taken by school building administrators after receiving a discipline referral were examined ti identify evidence of race and gender bias in administration of corporalExpand
The Disproportionate Discipline of African American Learners: Reducing School Suspensions and Expulsions
School disciplinary practices for students with disabilities and their peers without disabilities have long been questioned. Moreover, the school discipline of both dominant culture and ethnicExpand
Bad Boys and School Suspensions: Public Policy Implications for Black Males
The focus of this research is the disciplinary policy of school suspension and its effect on black male students. We examined the application of public school suspensions by race and sex in anExpand
Urban Classroom Conflict: Student- Teacher Perception: Ethnic Integrity, Solidarity, and Resistance
This study compared student-teacher perception of discipline; inquired if it were interpersonal, procedural, or substantive; and examined how ethnicity, achievement, gender, and position influencedExpand
Three Strikes and They're Out: African American Boys and American Schools' Responses to Misbehavior
ABSTRACT This article examines summary data from a recent U.S. Office for Education civil rights survey of American schools in terms of three specific types of school responses to children'sExpand
A study of race and gender bias in the punishment of handicapped school children
There is scant research concerned about punishment of handicapped, minority students in public schools. The purpose of this study was to investigate race and gender, types of rules violations, typesExpand
Black Student Dropout Behavior: Disengagement from School Rejection and Racial Discrimination.
During the past two decades national effort to provide equal educational opportunity for all young people has come under the close scrutiny of social scientists.1 Much of the research in this area,Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...