The Color of Discipline: Sources of Racial and Gender Disproportionality in School Punishment

  title={The Color of Discipline: Sources of Racial and Gender Disproportionality in School Punishment},
  author={Russell J. Skiba and Robert S. Michael and Abra Carroll Nardo and Reece L. Peterson},
  journal={The Urban Review},
The disproportionate discipline of African-American students has been extensively documented; yet the reasons for those disparities are less well understood. Drawing upon one year of middle-school disciplinary data for an urban school district, we explored three of the most commonly offered hypotheses for disproportionate discipline based on gender, race, and socioeconomic status. Racial and gender disparities in office referrals, suspensions, and expulsions were somewhat more robust than… 
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