The Color of Discipline: Sources of Racial and Gender Disproportionality in School Punishment

@article{Skiba2000TheCO,
  title={The Color of Discipline: Sources of Racial and Gender Disproportionality in School Punishment},
  author={Russell J. Skiba and Robert S. Michael and Abra Carroll Nardo and Reece L. Peterson},
  journal={The Urban Review},
  year={2000},
  volume={34},
  pages={317-342}
}
The disproportionate discipline of African-American students has been extensively documented; yet the reasons for those disparities are less well understood. Drawing upon one year of middle-school disciplinary data for an urban school district, we explored three of the most commonly offered hypotheses for disproportionate discipline based on gender, race, and socioeconomic status. Racial and gender disparities in office referrals, suspensions, and expulsions were somewhat more robust than… 

School Suspension in Florida: The Interactive Effects of Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Academic Achievement

Abstract A vast body of research demonstrates that the consequences of the “criminalization” of school discipline are not racially equitable, and Black and Hispanic students are more likely than

Interventions to Address Racial/Ethnic Disparities in School Discipline: Can Systems Reform Be Race-Neutral?

More than 50 years since Brown v. Board of Education, the over-representation of African American students in suspension and expulsion remains as one of the most pressing areas of inequity in

Girls Behaving Badly? Race, Gender, and Subjective Evaluation in the Discipline of African American Girls

School disciplinary processes are an important mechanism of inequality in education. Most prior research in this area focuses on the significantly higher rates of punishment among African American

Race and Discipline at a Racially Mixed Suburban High School: Status, Capital, and the Practice of Organizational Routines1

AbstractIn this article, we draw on extensive research from a well-resourced and diverse suburban school district to illustrate how racial inequality becomes embedded in school disciplinary routines

The (In)Visibility of Race in School Discipline Across Urban, Suburban, and Exurban Contexts

Background/Context: Racial disparities in school discipline represent a long-standing injustice in U.S. schools. Students of color, particularly Black students, are systematically subjected to

Race and the politics of educational exclusion: explaining the persistence of disproportionate disciplinary practices in an urban school district

ABSTRACT Educational research has established a link between zero tolerance disciplinary policies and increases in racial disproportionality in suspensions and expulsions of students of color. This

The Psychology of Disproportionality: Minority Placement in Context.

Racial disparities in special and gifted education cannot be understood independently of a broad legacy of racial inequity woven into American public education. The results of a qualitative study

Examining Disparities in Student Discipline: Mapping Inequities from Infractions to Consequences

ABSTRACT Mounting evidence indicates that students of color are more likely than their white peers to receive exclusionary discipline (out-of-school suspensions and expulsions), but alleviating these

Protecting Students from Racial Discrimination in Public Schools

The school to prison pipeline has become an increasingly popular topic of research in the field of Criminal Justice. These analyses focus on the racial biases that affect how disciplinary measures
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 86 REFERENCES

The Crime of Punishment: Racial and Gender Disparities in the Use of Corporal Punishment in U.S. Public Schools

Anecdotal evidence has long suggested that boys in general and African American males in particular are disproportionately represented among students who receive corporal punishment (CP) in school.

Facing the Consequences: An Examination of Racial Discrimination in U

In 1999, community organizations in several U.S. cities studied their local school districts to determine how they measured up in terms of racial justice. Using the computerized Racial Justice Report

The Social Construction of School Punishment: Racial Disadvantage Out of Universalistic Process

Black adolescents are much more likely to run afoul of the juvenile justice system than are similar white adolescents, even though the two groups self-report similar rates of offending. Within public

Race and Gender Bias in the Administration of Corporal Punishment.

The disciplinary actions taken by school building administrators after receiving a discipline referral were examined ti identify evidence of race and gender bias in administration of corporal

The Disproportionate Discipline of African American Learners: Reducing School Suspensions and Expulsions

School disciplinary practices for students with disabilities and their peers without disabilities have long been questioned. Moreover, the school discipline of both dominant culture and ethnic

Bad Boys and School Suspensions: Public Policy Implications for Black Males

The focus of this research is the disciplinary policy of school suspension and its effect on black male students. We examined the application of public school suspensions by race and sex in an

Urban Classroom Conflict: Student- Teacher Perception: Ethnic Integrity, Solidarity, and Resistance

This study compared student-teacher perception of discipline; inquired if it were interpersonal, procedural, or substantive; and examined how ethnicity, achievement, gender, and position influenced

A study of race and gender bias in the punishment of handicapped school children

There is scant research concerned about punishment of handicapped, minority students in public schools. The purpose of this study was to investigate race and gender, types of rules violations, types

Black Student Dropout Behavior: Disengagement from School Rejection and Racial Discrimination.

During the past two decades national effort to provide equal educational opportunity for all young people has come under the close scrutiny of social scientists.1 Much of the research in this area,

Classroom Management Strategies to Reduce Racially-Biased Treatment of Students

Minority students are more likely to be referred for disciplinary problems, to get suspended, and to receive longer repeated suspensions than are White students who share cultural similarities with
...