The Cognitive Neuroscience of Placebo Effects: Concepts, Predictions, and Physiology.

@article{Geuter2017TheCN,
  title={The Cognitive Neuroscience of Placebo Effects: Concepts, Predictions, and Physiology.},
  author={Stephan Geuter and Leonie Koban and Tor D. Wager},
  journal={Annual review of neuroscience},
  year={2017},
  volume={40},
  pages={
          167-188
        }
}
Placebos have been used ubiquitously throughout the history of medicine. Expectations and associative learning processes are important psychological determinants of placebo effects, but their underlying brain mechanisms are only beginning to be understood. We examine the brain systems underlying placebo effects on pain, autonomic, and immune responses. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), insula, amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray emerge as central brain structures… 

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