The Clinical Significance of Thymidine Kinase 1 Measurement in Serum of Breast Cancer Patients Using Anti-TK1 Antibody

  title={The Clinical Significance of Thymidine Kinase 1 Measurement in Serum of Breast Cancer Patients Using Anti-TK1 Antibody},
  author={Q. He and Li Zou and Pan Zhang and Jin Lui and Sven Skog and Tommy Fornander},
  journal={The International Journal of Biological Markers},
  pages={139 - 146}
  • Q. He, L. Zou, T. Fornander
  • Published 1 April 2000
  • Medicine, Biology
  • The International Journal of Biological Markers
The activity of total thymidine kinase in serum (S-TK) has been used as a tumor maker for decades. To date such activity has been determined using [125]I-iodo-deoxyuridine as a substrate. The aim of this study was to develop a new, antibody-based technique for the measurement of cytoplasmic thymidine kinase (TK1) in serum. Both mono- and polyclonal antibodies against S-TK1 were used in dot blot assay. S-TK1 was characterized by SDS and IEF techniques. Sixty-five breast cancer patients were… 

Serum thymidine kinase 1 activity in breast cancer.

Elevated serum TK1 is an important risk factor indicating a high proliferation potential of tumors at the time of excision, and was found to be an independent prognostic factor for RFS.

Diagnostic implications of the molecular forms and levels of serum thymidine kinase 1 in different canine malignancies

Overall, the results demonstrate that TK1 protein assays provide valuable diagnostic information in a variety of canine malignancies.

Serum thymidine kinase 1 reflects the progression of pre-malignant and malignant tumors during therapy.

The STK1 assay discriminated between patients with malignancies and healthy individuals very well, and is therefore potentially useful for a broad range of clinical applications.

The proliferation marker thymidine kinase 1 in clinical use.

Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1), a cell cycle-dependent and thus a proliferation-related marker, has been extensively studied during the last decades and is an emerging potential proliferating biomarker in oncology that may be used for the prognosis and monitoring of tumor therapy, relapse and survival.

Molecular properties of serum thymidine kinase 1 and use of the canine enzyme in disease monitoring

Investigating the molecular characteristics of canine thymidine kinase 1 and utilizing several anti-TK1 antibodies to a better understanding its role in disease prognostics, risk assessment, and monitoring of cancer development revealed that serum TK1 activity was elevated in 41% of bitches with pyometra, and thus TK 1 determinations may be clinically valuable also in some non-neoplastic diseases.

Thymidine kinase 1: a proliferation marker for determining prognosis and monitoring the surgical outcome of primary bladder carcinoma patients.

Since STK1 concentration correlates with tumor stage, degree of invasion and metastasis, and monitors the surgical outcome, it can be a reliable index to diagnose and determine prognosis in post-operative bladder carcinoma.

Breast and prostate cancer patients differ significantly in their serum Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) specific activities compared with those hematological malignancies and blood donors: implications of using serum TK1 as a biomarker

There are differences in the specific activities and the subunit compositions of STK1 in hematological malignancies compared with breast and prostate cancer, and this fact has several important implications for the use ofSTK1 as a tumor biomarker.

Serum thymidine kinase 1 is a reliable maker for the assessment of the risk of developing malignancy: A case report.

Overall, STK1p is useful in health screening to identify individuals at risk of developing premalignancy/malignancy and is currently being followed up using STK 1p analysis combined with imaging/pathology in order to begin therapeutic intervention as early as possible to avoid therisk of developing cancer.

Serological thymidine kinase 1 (STK1) indicates an elevated risk for the development of malignant tumours.

STK1-values > 2 pM may indicate an early risk for development of malignancies years later, as compared to the STK1 negative group, due to higher mean ages of persons with proliferative breast and prostate tissues.



Serum thymidine kinase levels are elevated and exhibit diurnal variations in patients with advanced ovarian cancer.

Application of an in vitro assay for serum thymidine kinase: Results on viral disease and malignancies in humans

The TK activity in sera from patients with both mononucleosis and tumor disease was characterized by electrophoresis and by its ability to utilize cytidine triphosphate as the phosphate donor, and showed that the serum TK has the same properties as the human cytosolar TK1, except in connection with varicella.

The use of serum deoxythymidine kinase as a prognostic marker, and in the monitoring of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

It is concluded that s-dTk could be used both as a prognostic marker and to monitor the effect of therapy in NHL patients.

Serum thymidine kinase in non-Hodgkin lymphomas with special regard to multiple myeloma.

The results suggest that the determination of S-TK may help to monitor the clinical course of NHL during therapy and predict the prognosis of NHL.

Can thymidine kinase levels in breast tumors predict disease recurrence?

Higher TK1 levels in tumors in patients who subsequently had disease recurrence almost certainly indicate a high rate of proliferation in such tumors at the time of excision, and TK is a potentially useful marker in the management of breast cancer.

Decreased thymidine kinase levels in peripheral blood cells from HIV-seropositive individuals: implications for zidovudine metabolism.

The reduced capacity for intracellular phosphorylation of AZT in HIV-infected individuals may be an important factor in the emergence of clinical AZT resistance and should also be accounted for in testingAZT resistance in vitro with PBMCs from healthy blood donors.

Clinical and biological significance of serum tumor markers in adult T-cell leukemia.

Four serum tumor markers at diagnosis of ATL showed a correlation with among leukocyte count, absolute number of abnormal lymphocytes with polymorphic nuclei, platelet count, serum calcium and the length of survival after the initial diagnosis.

Clinical significance of serum thymidine kinase in adult T‐cell leukaemia and acute myeloid leukaemia

In ATL patients a close correlation of TK level with the count of leucocytes, percentage of blasts in the blood, therapeutic response, and the length of survival after the initial diagnosis was present, but no correlation was observed between serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) level and these items.


The finding of reproducible TK activity which exhibits properties of the adult isoenzyme in plasma of normal individuals prompted us to determine the nature of plasma TKActivity in patients with normoblastic and megaloblastic anaemia.

Risk classification for large cell lymphoma using lactate dehydrogenase, beta-2 microglobulin, and thymidine kinase.

The addition of thymidine kinase permits a more precise estimate of risk, contributing to the utility of a serological staging system for large cell lymphoma.