The Chicxulub Asteroid Impact and Mass Extinction at the Cretaceous-Paleogene Boundary

  title={The Chicxulub Asteroid Impact and Mass Extinction at the Cretaceous-Paleogene Boundary},
  author={Peter Schulte and Laia Alegret and Ignacio Arenillas and Jos{\'e} Antonio Arz and Penny J. Barton and Paul R. Bown and Timothy J. Bralower and Gail L. Christeson and Philippe Claeys and Charles S. Cockell and Gareth S. Collins and Alexander Deutsch and Tamara Joan Goldin and Kazuhisa Goto and Jos{\'e} Manuel Grajales-Nishimura and Richard A. F. Grieve and Sean P. S. Gulick and Kirk R. Johnson and Wolfgang Kiessling and Christian Koeberl and David A. Kring and Kenneth G. Macleod and Takafumi Matsui and Jay Melosh and A. Montanari and Joanna V. Morgan and Clive R. Neal and Douglas J. Nichols and Richard D. Norris and Elisabetta Pierazzo and Gregory E. Ravizza and Mario Rebolledo-Vieyra and Wolf Uwe Reimold and {\'E}ric Robin and T. Salge and Robert P. Speijer and Arthur R. Sweet and Jaime Urrutia‐Fucugauchi and Vivi Vajda and Michael T. Whalen and Pi Suhr Willumsen},
  pages={1214 - 1218}
The Fall of the Dinosaurs According to the fossil record, the rule of dinosaurs came to an abrupt end ∼65 million years ago, when all nonavian dinosaurs and flying reptiles disappeared. Several possible mechanisms have been suggested for this mass extinction, including a large asteroid impact and major flood volcanism. Schulte et al. (p. 1214) review how the occurrence and global distribution of a global iridium-rich deposit and impact ejecta support the hypothesis that a single asteroid impact… 

Asteroid impact, not volcanism, caused the end-Cretaceous dinosaur extinction

The results support the asteroid impact as the main driver of the non-avian dinosaur extinction, by contrast, induced warming from volcanism mitigated the most extreme effects of asteroid impact, potentially reducing the extinction severity.

The Cretaceous–Tertiary Mass Extinction, Chicxulub Impact, and Deccan Volcanism

After three decades of nearly unchallenged wisdom that a large impact (Chicxulub) on Yucatan caused the end-Cretaceous mass extinction, this theory is facing its most serious challenge from the

How the Deccan Volcanism and the Chicxulub Asteroid Impact Resulted in the Biological Crisis Ending the Mesozoic Era

The direct causes for the end-Cretaceous biological crisis are still enigmatic despite of the numerous studies carried out at the Chicxulub asteroid impact site and in the Indian late Cretaceous

On impact and volcanism across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary

Carbon cycle modeling and paleotemperature records are used to constrain the timing of volcanogenic outgassing and found support for major out gassing beginning and ending distinctly before the impact, with only the impact coinciding with mass extinction and biologically amplified carbon cycle change.

The Chicxulub impact and its environmental consequences

The extinction of the dinosaurs and around three-quarters of all living species was almost certainly caused by a large asteroid impact 66 million years ago. Seismic data acquired across the impact

Rapid short-term cooling following the Chicxulub impact at the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary

It is demonstrated unambiguously that the impact at the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary (K–Pg, ∼66 Mya) was followed by a so-called “impact winter,” which was the result of the injection of large amounts of dust and aerosols into the stratosphere and significantly reduced incoming solar radiation for decades.

The extinction of the dinosaurs

The abruptness of the dinosaur extinction suggests a key role for the bolide impact, although the coarseness of the fossil record makes testing the effects of Deccan volcanism difficult.

Mass Extinction at the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) Boundary

  • T. Maruoka
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 2019
One of the “Big Five” mass extinctions in the Phanerozoic Eon occurred at the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) boundary (66.0 million years ago). The K–Pg mass extinction was triggered by a meteorite

Organic matter from the Chicxulub crater exacerbated the K–Pg impact winter

Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Chicxulub crater sediments and at two deep ocean sites indicate a fossil carbon source that experienced rapid heating, consistent with organic matter ejected during the formation of the crater, and size distributions proximal and distal to the crater indicate the ejected carbon was dispersed globally by atmospheric processes.

Postimpact earliest Paleogene warming shown by fish debris oxygen isotopes (El Kef, Tunisia)

Analysis of oxygen isotopic composition of fish debris, phosphatic microfossils that are relatively resistant to diagenetic alteration, from the Global Stratotype Section and Point for the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary at El Kef, Tunisia reports an ~1 per mil decrease in oxygen isotopy values beginning at the boundary and spanning ~300 centimeters of section, which matches expectations for impact-initiated greenhouse warming.



Rapid Resurgence of Marine Productivity After the Cretaceous-Paleogene Mass Extinction

It is shown that algae recovered rapidly and that photosynthesis and primary production thus also recovered, and convergence evidence from the stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen and abundances of algal steranes and bacterial hopanes indicates that algal primary productivity was strongly reduced for only a brief period of possibly less than a century after the impact.

Extraterrestrial Cause for the Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction

A hypothesis is suggested which accounts for the extinctions and the iridium observations, and the chemical composition of the boundary clay, which is thought to come from the stratospheric dust, is markedly different from that of clay mixed with the Cretaceous and Tertiary limestones, which are chemically similar to each other.

Energy, volatile production, and climatic effects of the Chicxulub Cretaceous/Tertiary impact.

A comprehensive analysis of volatiles in the Chicxulub impact strongly supports the hypothesis that impact-generated sulfate aerosols caused over a decade of global cooling, acid rain, and disruption


▪ Abstract One of the greatest mass extinctions in Earth's history occurred at the end of the Cretaceous era, sixty-five million years (Myr) ago. Considerable evidence indicates that the impact of a

More evidence that the Chicxulub impact predates the K/T mass extinction

Abstract Yaxcopoil‐1 (Yax‐1), drilled within the Chicxulub crater, was expected to yield the final proof that this impact occurred precisely 65 Myr ago and caused the mass extinction at the

Cretaceous–Tertiary palynofloral perturbations and extinctions within the Aquilapollenites Phytogeographic Province

A combination of detailed, intermediate and large scale stratigraphic perspectives is necessary to understand the driving mechanisms for floral change across the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) boundary,

Impact and extinction in remarkably complete Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sections from Demerara Rise, tropical western North Atlantic

Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 207, on the Demerara Rise in the western tropical North Atlantic, recovered multiple Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary sections containing an ejecta layer.

Synchroneity of the K-T oceanic mass extinction and meteorite impact: Blake Nose, western North Atlantic

A 10-cm-thick layer of green spherules occurs precisely at the biostratigraphic boundary between the Cretaceous and Paleogene (K-T boundary) at Ocean Drilling Program Site 1049 (lat 30°08′N, long

Correlated terrestrial and marine evidence for global climate changes before mass extinction at the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary

Paleotemperatures for the last ≈1.1 million years of the Cretaceous are estimated by using fossil plants from North Dakota and employ paleomagnetic stratigraphy to correlate the results to foraminiferal paleoclimatic data from four middle- and high-latitude sites, suggesting a coupling of pCO2 and temperature.