The Chiari 3.5 malformation: a review of the only reported case

  title={The Chiari 3.5 malformation: a review of the only reported case},
  author={Christian Fisahn and Mohammadali M. Shoja and Mehmet Cenk Turgut and Rod J. Oskouian and Walter Jerry Oakes and R. Shane Tubbs},
  journal={Child's Nervous System},
IntroductionIn 1894, Giuseppe Muscatello described what we believe to be the only case of an occipitocervical encephalocele with a communication to the stomach. This case and its history and context compared to the Chiari 3 malformation as described 3 years earlier by Hans Chiari are presented.ConclusionsBased on the uniqueness of this case, we propose the term Chiari 3.5 malformation be used to describe its anatomical derailment. 
Defining the Chiari Malformations: Past and Newer Classifications
Past and newer classifications of the Chiari malformations and related topics regarding the disease, including diagnosis and treatment, are given in detail in this chapter.
The Perplexity Surrounding Chiari Malformations – Are We Any Wiser Now?
The different types and pathophysiology of the Chiari malformations are reviewed, along with a description of the various associated abnormalities, and the role of ante- and postnatal imaging is highlighted.
The newer classifications of the chiari malformations with clarifications: An anatomical review
An anatomical, pathophysiological, and clinical aspects of the newer classifications with clarifications of the Chiari malformations are described, including Chiari IV malformation, which has been further clarified.
Clinical Aspects of the Inherited Cerebellar Malformations
This chapter focuses on cerebellar malformations that have been reported using characteristic symptoms and signs and the current approach for evaluation of the affected patients, differential diagnosis, and management will be discussed.
Measurement of the Volume of the Posterior Cranial Fossa Using MRI
The main purpose is to gather information about automated imaging methods for the PCF and techniques for measuring brain substructures in patients with CM I and their clinical significance.
Chiari Malformation


Chiari III malformation: a comprehensive review of this enigmatic anomaly
A comprehensive review of this rare anomaly as well as a translation of Chiari’s original description is provided, finding that the severity of symptoms is correlated with the amount of brain structures within the encephalocele.
The Chiari malformations: A review with emphasis on anatomical traits
These forms of cerebellar ectopia are reviewed and the details of their anomalous anatomy are described and the differing embryological theories found in this literature are compared and contrasts.
Chiari III malformation: MRI
We report the MRI findings in two cases of Chiari III malformation in which a high cervical meningoencephalocele and multiple hindbrain anomalies were present.
Chiari III malformation: imaging features.
Preoperative determination of the position of the medulla and pons is essential and is easily accomplished by MR to avoid surgical complications, and the high incidence of venous anomalies should be kept in mind.
Impact of DTI tractography on surgical planning for resection of a pediatric pre-pontine neurenteric cyst: a case discussion and literature review
The pathophysiology of and treatment options for NECs are discussed and it is explained how DTI tractography in this case assisted in planning the surgical approach.
a case discussion and literature review
  • Childs Nerv Syst 31:457–463 Childs Nerv Syst
  • 2016
CohenGadol AA (2015) The Chiari malformations: a reviewwith emphasis on anatomical traits
  • Clin Anat
  • 2015
Chiari III malformation: MRI. Neuroradiology 38:S184–S186
  • 1996