The Challenge of Variable Effort Crowdsourcing and How Visible Gold Can Help

@article{Hettiachchi2021TheCO,
  title={The Challenge of Variable Effort Crowdsourcing and How Visible Gold Can Help},
  author={Danula Hettiachchi and Mike Schaekermann and Tristan McKinney and Matthew Lease},
  journal={Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction},
  year={2021},
  volume={5},
  pages={1 - 26}
}
We consider a class of variable effort human annotation tasks in which the number of labels required per item can greatly vary (e.g., finding all faces in an image, named entities in a text, bird calls in an audio recording, etc.). In such tasks, some items require far more effort than others to annotate. Furthermore, the per-item annotation effort is not known until after each item is annotated since determining the number of labels required is an implicit part of the annotation task itself… 
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