The Centromere: Hub of Chromosomal Activities

@article{Pluta1995TheCH,
  title={The Centromere: Hub of Chromosomal Activities},
  author={ANN F. Pluta and Alastair M. Mackay and Alexandra M. Ainsztein and I G Goldberg and William C. Earnshaw},
  journal={Science},
  year={1995},
  volume={270},
  pages={1591 - 1594}
}
Centromeres are the structures that direct eukaryotic chromosome segregation in mitosis and meiosis. There are two major classes of centromeres. Point centromeres, found in the budding yeasts, are compact loci whose constituent proteins are now beginning to yield to biochemical analysis. Regional centromeres, best described in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, encompass many kilobases of DNA and are packaged into heterochromatin. Their associated proteins are as yet poorly understood… 
Heterochromatin tells CENP-A where to go.
TLDR
De novo centromere assembly of CENP-A is shown to be dependent on heterochromatin and the RNA interference pathway.
The molecular basis for centromere identity and function
TLDR
Ongoing work is providing important molecular insights into the central requirements for centromere identity and propagation, and the mechanisms by which centromeres recruit kinetochores to connect to spindle microtubules.
Centromere proteins and chromosome inheritance: a complex affair.
TLDR
A picture is beginning to emerge of the centromere-kinetechore as a complex and dynamic structure with conservation of function at the protein level across diverse species.
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinetochore
TLDR
This review discusses the role of the S. cerevisiae kinetochores in a putative cell cycle checkpoint control and in microtubule attachment, and DAscribe proteins that are putatively involved in Kinetochore function specifically in the context with CBF3 interaction.
Centromere DNA dynamics: latent centromeres and neocentromere formation.
  • K. Choo
  • Biology, Medicine
    American journal of human genetics
  • 1997
The centromere is a vital chromosomal structure that provides all living cells with the ability to faithfully partition their genetic material during mitotic and meiotic cell divisions. It functions
Centromeres, checkpoints and chromatid cohesion.
  • R. Allshire
  • Biology, Medicine
    Current opinion in genetics & development
  • 1997
TLDR
Phenotypic and localization data combined with their pattern of rapid degradation at anaphase have implicated several yeast and Drosophila proteins in aspects of sister chromatid cohesion.
Recent advances in plant centromere biology
TLDR
This review will present recent progress in plant centromere biology and identify the histone H3 variant CENH3 (CENP-A in human), which mostly exists in centromeric nucleosomes, which plays an essential role in Centromere identity determination.
The case for epigenetic effects on centromere identity and function.
TLDR
This work has shown that the higher-order structure of the underlying heterochromatin contributes to centromere function and kinetochore assembly, and that the putative cis-acting centromeric DNA sequences bear little or no similarity across species.
Assembly of kinetochores in vertebrate cells.
  • T. Fukagawa
  • Biology, Medicine
    Experimental cell research
  • 2004
TLDR
This review will focus on recent advances in the understanding of centromere DNAs as sites for kinetochore assembly and the mechanism underlying kinetchore assembly in vertebrate cells.
The Centromere: Chromatin Foundation for the Kinetochore Machinery
TLDR
This review of classic work and recent progress in studies of centromeric chromatin on vertebrates considers possible roles for repetitive DNA sequences found at most centromeres, chromatin factors and modifications that assemble and activate CENP-A chromatin for Kinetochore assembly, plus the use of artificial chromosomes and kinetochores to study centromere function.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 97 REFERENCES
The centromere of budding yeast
  • J. Hegemann, U. Fleig
  • Biology, Medicine
    BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology
  • 1993
TLDR
Finally, recent findings suggest that assembly and activation of the centromere are integrated in tethe cell cycle.
The chromodomain protein Swi6: a key component at fission yeast centromeres
TLDR
It is shown that Swi6p localizes with these three chromosomal regions in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and is required for their proper function.
Centromere and kinetochore structure
TLDR
The centromere-specific DNA sequences in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe have been identified and partially characterized and localization and inhibition studies suggest roles for these proteins in the regulation and assembly of a functional kinetochore.
Centromeres of budding and fission yeasts.
  • L. Clarke
  • Biology, Medicine
    Trends in genetics : TIG
  • 1990
TLDR
Fission yeast provides an excellent model system for studying the role of repeated DNA sequences in centromere function, and a portion of the repeated sequences is organized into a large inverted repeated structure in the Centromere region of each S. pombe chromosome.
The structure of the mammalian centromere
  • J. B. Rattner
  • Biology, Medicine
    BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology
  • 1991
The mammalian centromere is a multifunctional chromosomal domain with a complexity that is reflected in its higher order structure, DNA sequence organization and protein composition. The centromere
Cell cycle-dependent specific positioning and clustering of centromeres and telomeres in fission yeast
TLDR
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) shows that fission yeast centromeres and telomeres make up specific spatial arrangements in the nucleus and is a powerful tool for analyzing mitotic chromosome movement and disjunction using various mutants.
Localization of centromere function in a drosophila minichromosome
TLDR
It is proposed that the essential core of the centromere is the site of kinetochore formation and that flanking DNA provides two functions: sister chromatid cohesion and indirect assistance in kinetchore formation or function.
Centromeres: an integrated protein/DNA complex required for chromosome movement.
TLDR
The present study focuses on the development and evolution of the kinetochore in the context of central nervous system disorder.
Factors required for the binding of reassembled yeast kinetochores to microtubules in vitro
TLDR
The attachment of kinetochores to microtubules appears to involve a hierarchy of interactions by factors that assemble on a core complex consisting of DNA-bound CBF3, and it is found that CBF 3 is absolutely essential for this attachment.
KAR3-encoded kinesin is a minus-end-directed motor that functions with centromere binding proteins (CBF3) on an in vitro yeast kinetochore.
  • K. Middleton, J. Carbon
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1994
TLDR
In vitro motility assays support genetic evidence suggesting that Kar3p is a kinetochore-associated motor and imply that CBF3 plays a regulatory role in kinetchore function.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...