The Cenozoic palaeoenvironment of the Arctic Ocean

@article{Moran2006TheCP,
  title={The Cenozoic palaeoenvironment of the Arctic Ocean},
  author={Kathryn Moran and Jan Backman and Henk Brinkhuis and Steven C. Clemens and Thomas W. Cronin and Gerald R. Dickens and Fr{\'e}d{\'e}rique Eynaud and J{\'e}r{\^o}me Gattacceca and Martin Jakobsson and Richard W. Jordan and Michael A. Kaminski and John W. King and Nal{\^a}n Koç and Alexey Krylov and Nahysa C. Martinez and Jens Matthiessen and David McInroy and Theodore C. Moore and Jonaotaro Onodera and Matthew O’Regan and Heiko P{\"a}like and Brice R. Rea and Domenico Rio and Tatsuhiko Sakamoto and David C. Smith and Ruediger Stein and Kristen St. John and Itsuki Suto and N. Suzuki and Kozo Takahashi and Mahito Watanabe and Masanobu Yamamoto and John W. Farrell and Martin Frank and Peter W. Kubik and Wilfried Jokat and Yngve Kristoffersen},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2006},
  volume={441},
  pages={601-605}
}
The history of the Arctic Ocean during the Cenozoic era (0–65 million years ago) is largely unknown from direct evidence. Here we present a Cenozoic palaeoceanographic record constructed from >400 m of sediment core from a recent drilling expedition to the Lomonosov ridge in the Arctic Ocean. Our record shows a palaeoenvironmental transition from a warm ‘greenhouse’ world, during the late Palaeocene and early Eocene epochs, to a colder ‘icehouse’ world influenced by sea ice and icebergs from… 
Continental ice in Greenland during the Eocene and Oligocene
The Eocene and Oligocene epochs (∼55 to 23 million years ago) comprise a critical phase in Earth history. An array of geological records supported by climate modelling indicates a profound shift in
Expanding the Cenozoic paleoceanographic record in the Central Arctic Ocean: IODP Expedition 302 Synthesis
The Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX) proved to be one of the most transformational missions in almost 40 year of scientific ocean drilling. ACEX recovered the first Cenozoic sedimentary sequence from
Late Cretaceous seasonal ocean variability from the Arctic
TLDR
The evidence for seasonal diatom production and flux testify to an ice-free summer, but thin accumulations of terrigenous sediment within the diatom ooze are consistent with the presence of intermittent sea ice in the winter, supporting a wide body of evidence for low temperatures in the Late Cretaceous Arctic Ocean.
A history of sea ice in the Cenozoic Arctic Ocean
The body of this work focuses on the use and revelations of grain size distributions combined with age models and physical properties of sediments, expanding our understanding of the central Arctic
Northern Hemisphere Glaciation during the Globally Warm Early Late Pliocene
TLDR
A conceptual model for the glaciation and deglaciation of MIS M2 is proposed based on geochemical and palynological records from five marine sediment cores along a Caribbean to eastern North Atlantic transect, showing that heat transport via the North Atlantic Current was crucial in maintaining warm climates comparable to those predicted for the end of this century.
Subtropical Arctic Ocean temperatures during the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum
TLDR
It is shown that sea surface temperatures near the North Pole increased from ∼18 °C to over 23‬°C during this event, which suggests that higher-than-modern greenhouse gas concentrations must have operated in conjunction with other feedback mechanisms—perhaps polar stratospheric clouds or hurricane-induced ocean mixing—to amplify early Palaeogene polar temperatures.
Late Cenozoic Paleoceanography of the Central Arctic Ocean
The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and perhaps least accessible of the worlds oceans. It occupies only 26% of the global ocean area, and less than 10% of its volume [1]. However, it exerts a
Episodic fresh surface waters in the Eocene Arctic Ocean
TLDR
Palaeogene sediments obtained during the Arctic Coring Expedition are analysed, showing that large quantities of the free-floating fern Azolla grew and reproduced in the Arctic Ocean by the onset of the middle Eocene epoch and that onset and termination of the Azolla phase depended on the degree of oceanic exchange between Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas.
Cenozoic ice‐rafting history of the central Arctic Ocean: Terrigenous sands on the Lomonosov Ridge
The Cenozoic ice-rafted debris (IRD) history of the central Arctic is reconstructed utilizing the terrigenous coarse sand fraction in IODP 302 cores from 0 to 273 meters composite depth. This
History of sea ice in the Arctic basin: Lessons from the past for future
The process of the sea ice formation in the Arctic Ocean is analyzed for the period of the last 65 million years, i.e. from the Paleocene to the present time. Appearance of sea ice in the high
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 55 REFERENCES
Subtropical Arctic Ocean temperatures during the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum
TLDR
It is shown that sea surface temperatures near the North Pole increased from ∼18 °C to over 23‬°C during this event, which suggests that higher-than-modern greenhouse gas concentrations must have operated in conjunction with other feedback mechanisms—perhaps polar stratospheric clouds or hurricane-induced ocean mixing—to amplify early Palaeogene polar temperatures.
Episodic fresh surface waters in the Eocene Arctic Ocean
TLDR
Palaeogene sediments obtained during the Arctic Coring Expedition are analysed, showing that large quantities of the free-floating fern Azolla grew and reproduced in the Arctic Ocean by the onset of the middle Eocene epoch and that onset and termination of the Azolla phase depended on the degree of oceanic exchange between Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas.
Eocene bipolar glaciation associated with global carbon cycle changes
The transition from the extreme global warmth of the early Eocene ‘greenhouse’ climate ∼55 million years ago to the present glaciated state is one of the most prominent changes in Earth's climatic
Ice shelves in the Pleistocene Arctic Ocean inferred from glaciogenic deep-sea bedforms
TLDR
Backscatter images and sub-bottom profiler records obtained during the submarine SCICEX expedition in 1999 show multiple bedforms indicative of glacial scouring and moulding of sea floor, combined with large-scale erosion of submarine ridge crests, demonstrating that immense, Antarctic-type ice shelves existed in the Arctic Ocean during Pleistocene glaciations.
Late Paleocene-early Eocene climatic and biotic events in the marine and terrestrial records
The transition from the Paleocene to the Eocene Epoch-approximately 55 million years ago-represents a critical moment in the earth's history, when the warmest climatic episode of the Cenozoic era
Global dinoflagellate event associated with the late Paleocene thermal maximum
The late Paleocene thermal maximum, or LPTM (ca. 55 Ma), represents a geologically brief time interval (∼220 k.y.) characterized by profound global warming and associated environmental change. The
Pliocene-Pleistocene ice rafting history and cyclicity in the Nordic Seas during the last 3.5 Myr
A continuous 3.5 Myr IRD record was produced from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 907. A timescale based on magnetic polarity chrons, oxygen isotope stratigraphy (for the last 1Myr) and orbital
Middle Miocene ocean-climate transition: High resolution oxygen and carbon isotopic records from Dee
High-resolution stable isotopic records are presented for the epi-benthic foraminifer Cibicidoides, the inferred shallow-dwelling planktonic Globigerinoides quadrilobatus, and the inferred
Rapid stepwise onset of Antarctic glaciation and deeper calcite compensation in the Pacific Ocean
TLDR
The changes in oxygen-isotope composition across the Eocene/Oligocene boundary are too large to be explained by Antarctic ice-sheet growth alone and must therefore also indicate contemporaneous global cooling and/or Northern Hemisphere glaciation.
...
...