The Cecal Appendix: One More Immune Component With a Function Disturbed By Post‐Industrial Culture

@article{Laurin2011TheCA,
  title={The Cecal Appendix: One More Immune Component With a Function Disturbed By Post‐Industrial Culture},
  author={Michel Laurin and Mary Lou Everett and William Parker},
  journal={The Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology},
  year={2011},
  volume={294}
}
  • M. Laurin, M. Everett, W. Parker
  • Published 1 April 2011
  • Medicine
  • The Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
This review assesses the current state of knowledge regarding the cecal appendix, its apparent function, and its evolution. The association of the cecal appendix with substantial amounts of immune tissue has long been taken as an indicator that the appendix may have some immune function. Recently, an improved understanding of the interactions between the normal gut flora and the immune system has led to the identification of the appendix as an apparent safe‐house for normal gut bacteria… 
The immunology of the vermiform appendix: a review of the literature
TLDR
The idea of the appendix being a vestigial organ should therefore be discarded, as multiple immunological aspects point towards the appendix as a priming site for ulcerative colitis.
A review of the function and evolution of the cecal appendix.
TLDR
Mapping appendiceal and other gastrointestinal traits across a mammalian consensus phylogeny revealed that the cecal appendix has evolved independently numerous times throughout mammalian evolution, significantly more than would be expected due to chance alone, suggesting that the appendix is adaptively advantageous.
The Link between the Appendix and Ulcerative Colitis: Clinical Relevance and Potential Immunological Mechanisms
TLDR
This literature review assesses the current knowledge about the clinical and immunological aspects of the vermiform appendix in IBD and suggests that the idea of the appendix as a vestigial remnant should be discarded.
The vermiform appendix: an immunological organ sustaining a microbiome inoculum.
TLDR
A plausible appreciation results of the importance of the importance of multiple immunological aspects of a healthy vermiform appendix and the provision of a commensal biofilm to the gut that repairs a dysbiotic microbiome contributing to balancing intestinal pro- and anti-inflammatory activity for maintaining homeostasis in the gut.
Microbial Composition of Human Appendices from Patients following Appendectomy
TLDR
The first comprehensive view of the microbial composition of the appendix as determined by high-throughput sequencing concludes that the human appendix contains a robust and varied microbiota distinct from the microbiotas in other niches within the human microbiome.
Appendectomy as a Potential Predisposing Factor for the Development of Recurrent and Fulminant Clostridium Difficile
TLDR
Analysis of the prominent gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) as a mechanism of defence in infection, as well as the robust biofilm that could aid in the reinoculation of beneficial bacteria within the colon, suggests there appears to be some connection between these variables.
The gallbladder and vermiform appendix influence the assemblage of intestinal microorganisms.
TLDR
A narrative review summarizes studies that report on the role that bile salts and the appendix, contribute to the assemblage of the intestinal microbiome in health and disease.
The cecal appendix is correlated with greater maximal longevity in mammals
TLDR
It is found, through analyses of data on 258 mammalian species, that cecal appendix presence is correlated with increased maximal observed longevity, the first demonstration of a correlation between cecAL appendix presence and life history.
Gut Microbial Flora, Prebiotics, and Probiotics in IBD: Their Current Usage and Utility
TLDR
An update on the role of selected constituents of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of IBD is presented and the analysis of the efficacy of Gut microbiota modulation by prebiotics and probiotics administration in the management of I BD is presented.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 128 REFERENCES
Comparative anatomy and phylogenetic distribution of the mammalian cecal appendix
TLDR
Cladistic analyses indicate that the appendix has evolved independently at least twice, shows a highly significant phylogenetic signal in its distribution, and has been maintained in mammalian evolution for 80 million years or longer.
Human secretory immunoglobulin A may contribute to biofilm formation in the gut
TLDR
Human sIgA was found to facilitate biofilm formation by normal human gut flora and by Escherichia coli on cultured human epithelial cell surfaces under conditions in which non‐adherent bacteria were repeatedly washed away.
Review series on helminths, immune modulation and the hygiene hypothesis: The broader implications of the hygiene hypothesis
  • G. Rook
  • Biology, Medicine
    Immunology
  • 2009
TLDR
This review discusses the possibilities in the context of Darwinian medicine of identifying some of the organisms that are important for the ‘Hygiene’ or ‘Old Friends’ hypothesis, and to point to the potential exploitation of these organisms or their components in novel types of prophylaxis with applications in several branches of medicine.
Interactions between the microbiota and the intestinal mucosa
TLDR
The present work summarizes the increasing scientific attention for mechanisms of the innate immune response of the host to different components of the autochthonous microflora and suggests a potential role for selected probiotic bacteria in the regulation of intestinal inflammation.
The vermiform appendix: not a useless organ.
  • A. Zahid
  • Biology
    Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • 2004
TLDR
The appendix is one of the guardians of the internal environment of the body from the hostile external environment, which helps in the proper movement and removal of waste matter in the digestive system, and might even produce early defences that prevent deadly diseases.
The innate allergenicity of helminth parasites
TLDR
It is proposed that in the course of its life cycle, the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus becomes innately allergenic through the secretion of a molecular array designed to promote tissue migration and homing, feeding and survival against immunological attack.
Helminth immunoregulation: The role of parasite secreted proteins in modulating host immunity
Allergy, parasites, and the hygiene hypothesis.
TLDR
The induction of a robust anti-inflammatory regulatory network by persistent immune challenge offers a unifying explanation for the observed inverse association of many infections with allergic disorders.
The Human Intestinal Microbiome: A New Frontier of Human Biology
  • M. Hattori, T. Taylor
  • Biology
    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes
  • 2009
TLDR
Through metagenomic analysis, it is now possible to comprehensively explore the genetic nature of the intestinal microbiome, the mutually interacting system comprising the host cells and the residing microbial community.
...
...