The Causes of Hostile Media Judgments

@article{GinerSorolla1994TheCO,
  title={The Causes of Hostile Media Judgments},
  author={Roger Giner-Sorolla and Shelly Chaiken},
  journal={Journal of Experimental Social Psychology},
  year={1994},
  volume={30},
  pages={165-180}
}
This research investigated the mechanisms involved in the hostile media effect, in which partisans tend to judge news coverage as biased against their own side. Subjects on both sides of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the abortion issue were shown television news coverage of both issues. They were then tested for memory of program content and judgments of bias and imbalance in coverage. Mideast partisans judged coverage to be biased against their own side, replicating previous findings… 

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Results supported the hypothesis that people make inferences about the climate of opinion based on their reading of the news, especially the perceived slant of that news, and confirmed that partisans on each side of the issue judged news articles to be biased in a disagreeable direction relative to judgments of those on the other side.

Personal Bias or Government Bias? Testing the Hostile Media Effect in a Regulated Press System

This study examines the hostile media effect in relation to partisans’ perception of the slant of news coverage in a highly regulated press environment—Singapore. We found that partisans in Singapore

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The data supported an expected hostile media perception in the case of “fair and balanced” information, but different patterns in the other bias conditions suggest that content variables can sometimes disarm defensive processing.

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Using new field-experiment tests with groups of partisans who either supported or opposed the use of genetically modified foods, evidence of selective categorization and different standards generally was found, however, only selective categization appeared to explain the hostile media effect.

Assimilation and Contrast in a Test of the Hostile Media Effect

Overall evaluations tended toward assimilation rather than contrast effects, and two distinct dimensions of partisanship produced surprising and provocative results.
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