The Causes and Prevention of Cancer: The Role of Environment

  title={The Causes and Prevention of Cancer: The Role of Environment},
  author={Bruce N. Ames and Lois Swirsky Gold},
The idea that synthetic chemicals such as DDT are major contributors to human cancer has been inspired, in part, by Rachel Carson's passionate book, Silent Spring. This chapter discusses evidence showing why this is not true. We also review research on the causes of cancer, and show why much cancer is preventable.Epidemiological evidence indicates several factors likely to have a major effect on reducing rates of cancer: reduction of smoking, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, and… 

Lifestyle-related factors and environmental agents causing cancer: an overview.

Natural Products: Implication in Cancer Prevention and Treatment through Modulating Various Biological Activities.

In this review, the different risk factors of cancer development, conventional and innovative strategies of its management and a brief review of the most recognized natural products used as anticancer agents globally are discussed.

Review: Coffee drinking: The rationale for treating it as a potential effect modifier of carcinogenic exposures

The study of interactions between caffeine-containing beverages and environmental agents in well defined groups of healthy and diseased people could yield new insights into checkpoint signal transduction and other mechanisms of carcinogenesis.

Nature via Nurture: Effect of Diet on Health, Obesity, and Safety Assessment

The adverse effects of ad libitum overfeeding on metabolic, endocrine, renal, and cardiac diseases, and many cancers and the healthful effects of moderate dietary restriction (DR) in modulating obesity and controlling spontaneous and induced diseases of laboratory animals used in toxicology and carcinogenicity studies for human safety assessment are reviewed.

Risk Factors for Cancer: Genetic and Environment

Cancer is a multifactorial disease caused by combined effects of both genetic and environmental factors, and the genetic factors and their interrelationships with the environmental factors play an important role.

Biomarkers of Nutritional Exposure and Nutritional Status

The role of food mutagens in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis is reviewed and how their effects are modified by heritable traits are discussed and how to identify and evaluate the effects of food Mutagens is discussed.

Green Tea Compound in Chemoprevention of Cervical Cancer

This study provides information on the potential mechanisms of action of green tea compounds in suppression of HPV-related cervical cells, and it will enable us to assess the feasibility of using these agents.

Environmental influences in cancer aetiology

Purpose. The purpose of this review is to inform both scientists and clinicians about the increase in cancer incidence throughout the Western World and to discuss environmental influences in cancer

Influence of orange juice over the genotoxicity induced by alkylating agents: an in vivo analysis.

The ability of the in vivo comet assay to detect in vivo modulation of MMS and CP mutagenicity by orange juice was demonstated.



The causes and prevention of cancer.

Epidemiological evidence indicates that avoidance of smoking, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, and control of infections will have a major effect on reducing rates of cancer. Other

The causes of cancer: quantitative estimates of avoidable risks of cancer in the United States today.

Evidence that the various common types of cancer are largely avoidable diseases is reviewed, and it is suggested that, apart from cancer of the respiratory tract, the types of cancers that are currently common are not peculiarly modern diseases and are likely to depend chiefly on some long-established factor.

Toward the primary prevention of cancer.

This is the threshold of an era when many of the most prevalent human cancers can, to a significant extent, be prevented through life-style changes or medical interventions, and large-scale medical intervention trials are imminent.

Diet, nutrition, and avoidable cancer.

  • W. Willett
  • Medicine
    Environmental health perspectives
  • 1995
Considering the more recent evidence, it is roughly estimated that about 32% of cancer may be avoidable by changes in diet; however, it now seems unlikely that less than 20% or more than 42% ofcancer deaths would be avoidability by dietary change.

Dietary and environmental estrogens and antiestrogens and their possible role in human disease

  • S. Safe
  • Chemistry, Biology
    Environmental science and pollution research international
  • 1994
It is possible that dietary and environmental estrogens and antiestrogens may be contra-active, and these interactions must be considered in the overall risk assessment of the potential adverse human and environmental health impacts of these chemicals.

Fruit, vegetables, and cancer prevention: a review of the epidemiological evidence.

It would appear that major public health benefits could be achieved by substantially increasing consumption of fruit and vegetable consumption, and in particular in cancers of the esophagus, oral cavity, and larynx, for which 28 of 29 studies were significant.

Non-genotoxic carcinogenesis: implications for testing and extrapolation to man.

  • F. Roe
  • Biology, Medicine
  • 1989
It is argued that non-genotoxic mechanisms may be more important than genotoxic mechanisms in the genesis of cancer and that the use of tests for genotoxicity to screen chemicals for carcinogenicity

Nutritional Prevention of DNA Damage to Sperm and Consequent Risk Reduction in Birth Defects and Cancer in Offspring

Improved nutrition, increased intake of antioxidants, and cessation of dangerous habits, such as smoking, is critical for lowering individual risk of degenerative disease.

Organochlorines in the environment and breast cancer

The women with breast cancer had slightly higher concentrations of DDE than controls but the difference was not statistically significant, and the polychlorinated biphenyls group used in industry was not affected.

Arsenic ingestion and internal cancers: a review.

These studies strongly suggest that ingested inorganic arsenic does cause cancers of the bladder, kidney, lung, and liver, and possibly other sites, however, confirmatory studies are needed.