The Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S Promoter: Combinatorial Regulation of Transcription in Plants

  title={The Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S Promoter: Combinatorial Regulation of Transcription in Plants},
  author={Philip N. Benfey and Nam‐Hai Chua},
  pages={959 - 966}
Appropriate regulation of transcription in higher plants requires specific cis elements in the regulatory regions of genes and their corresponding trans-acting proteins. Analysis of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter has contributed to the understanding of transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. The intact 35S promoter confers constitutive expression upon heterologous genes in most plants. Dissection into subdomains that are able to confer tissue-specific gene expression has… 

Cauliflower Mosaic Virus Gene VI Controls Translation from Dicistronic Expression Units in Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants.

Histological GUS assays showed that transactivation occurred in all types of tissue and at all developmental stages, and the practical implications of the induction of GUS expression from the dicistronic unit by virus infection are discussed.

Promoter analysis of genes that are coordinately expressed during pollen development reveals pollen-specific enhancer sequences and shared regulatory elements.

Similarities in sequence between crucial cis elements provide evidence that shared regulatory elements are involved in the coordinate expression of the LAT genes during microsporogenesis.

Functional analysis of cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter: re-evaluation of the role of subdomains B5, B4 and B2 in promoter activity.

This study suggests that the 35S promoter truncated up to -301 functions in a similar manner to the -343 (full-length) 35SPromoter, which can be used to drive multiple transgenes without evoking promoter homology-based gene silencing when attempting gene stacking.

Immediate early transcription activation by salicylic acid via the cauliflower mosaic virus as-1 element.

These results represent a definitive analysis of immediate early responses to SA, relative to the late induction of PR genes, and potentially elucidate the early events of SA signal transduction during the plant defense response.

A dominant negative mutant of PG13 suppresses transcription from a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S truncated promoter in transgenic tobacco plants.

Transgenic tobacco plants expressing a mutant of potato PG13, which lacks its wild-type DNA binding domain acts as a trans-dominant inhibitor of ASF-1 formation and of expression from the CaMV 35S (-90) promoter, showing that PG13 can specifically interact with proteins necessary for these processes.

Vascular-specific expression of the bean GRP 1.8 gene is negatively regulated.

Vascular-specific expression of the GRP 1.8 promoter is controlled by a complex set of positive and negative interactions between cis-acting regulatory regions, and the disturbance of these interactions results in expression in additional cell types.

Modular organization and developmental activity of an Arabidopsis thaliana EF-1α gene promoter

The results show that the A1 promoter exhibits a modular organization, suggesting combinatorial properties of EF-1α cis-regulatory elements, and is reinforced by the results of transient expression experiments in transfected Arabidopsis protoplasts.

Bidirectionalization of polar promoters in plants

A strategy to make polar promoters bidirectional so that one promoter can direct the expression of two genes, one on each end of the promoter, is described.



Identification of DNA sequences required for activity of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter

The effects of 5′ deletions in a plant viral promoter in tobacco callus as well as in regenerated plants, includ ing different plant tissues, are analysed to allow a more direct assessment of deletion effects.

Multiple cis regulatory elements for maximal expression of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in transgenic plants.

It is shown that monomers and multimers of a 35S fragment (-209 to -46) can act as enhancers to potentiate transcription from a heterologous promoter.

Comparison of cauliflower mosaic virus 35S and nopaline synthase promoters in transgenic plants.

It is reported that the NPT II transcript levels are on the average 30 fold higher in plants containing CaMV 35S promoter and leader sequences than in plantscontaining the same reporter gene but nopaline synthase promoter andLeader sequences.

Duplication of CaMV 35S Promoter Sequences Creates a Strong Enhancer for Plant Genes

A variant of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter with transcriptional activity approximately tenfold higher than that of the natural promoter was constructed by tandem duplication of 250 base pairs of upstream sequences, which should be very useful for obtaining high levels of expression of foreign genes in transgenic plants.

Regulated Genes in Transgenic Plants

Analysis of the petunia 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene, which is highly expressed in flowers, allowed identification of an upstream region that confers tissue-specific and developmentally regulated expression.

Functional regions of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA promoter determined by use of the firefly luciferase gene as a reporter of promoter activity.

  • D. OwJ. JacobsS. Howell
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1987
It is demonstrated that elements outside the boundaries of the core promoter (composed of proximal and medial elements) are recognized in a plant cell transient expression system.

ASF-2: a factor that binds to the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and a conserved GATA motif in Cab promoters.

Histochemical localization of the reporter gene product suggests that the as-2 tetramer directs expression in trichomes, vascular elements, and epidermal and mesophyll cells, indicating that the GT motifs may not be involved in ASF-2.

Site-specific mutations alter in vitro factor binding and change promoter expression pattern in transgenic plants.

A single factor binding site that is defined by site-specific mutations is shown to be sufficient to alter the expression pattern of promoters in vivo.

GT-1 binding site confers light responsive expression in transgenic tobacco.

Light-dependent expression of rbcS, the gene encoding the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, which is the key enzyme involved in carbon fixation in higher plants, is regulated at

Two tobacco DNA-binding proteins with homology to the nuclear factor CREB

THE 35S promoter of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) contains a tandem repeat of the sequence TGACG in the region −83 to −63. This 21-base pair (bp) sequence, called as-1, is involved in root