# The Casimir force between real materials: Experiment and theory

@article{Klimchitskaya2009TheCF, title={The Casimir force between real materials: Experiment and theory}, author={Galina L. Klimchitskaya and Umar Mohideen and Vladimir M. Mostepanenko}, journal={Reviews of Modern Physics}, year={2009}, volume={81}, pages={1827-1885} }

The physical origin of the Casimir force is connected with the existence of zero-point and thermal fluctuations. The Casimir effect is very general and finds applications in various fields of physics. This review is limited to the rapid progress at the intersection of experiment and theory that has been achieved in the last few years. It includes a critical assessment of the proposed approaches to the resolution of the puzzles arising in the applications of the Lifshitz theory of the van derâ€¦Â

## Figures from this paper

## 423 Citations

### Normal and lateral Casimir force: Advances and prospects

- Physics
- 2010

We discuss recent experimental and theoretical results on the Casimir force between real material bodies made of different materials. Special attention is paid to calculations of the normal Casimirâ€¦

### Plasma versus Drude Modeling of the Casimir Force: Beyond the Proximity Force Approximation.

- PhysicsPhysical review letters
- 2017

It is found that the correction to PFA is too small to explain the discrepancy between the experimental data and the PFA result based on the Drude model, and the corrections for the plasma model lie well outside the experimental bound obtained by probing the variation of the force gradient with the sphere radius.

### Casimir Effects in 2D Dirac Materials (Scientific Summary)

- PhysicsJETP Letters
- 2019

Fluctuation induced interactions originating from electromagnetic fields give rise to the Casimir force. Even though this is a universal interaction, because of the interplay between the responseâ€¦

### Casimir Puzzle and Casimir Conundrum: Discovery and Search for Resolution

- Physics
- 2021

We review complicated problems in the Lifshitz theory describing the Casimir force between real material plates made of metals and dielectrics including different approaches to their resolution. Itâ€¦

### Theory-experiment comparison for the Casimir force between metallic test bodies: A spatially nonlocal dielectric response

- PhysicsPhysical Review A
- 2022

It has been known that the Lifshitz theory of the Casimir force comes into conflict with the measurement data if the response of conduction electrons in metals to electromagnetic fluctuations isâ€¦

### Control of the Casimir Force Using Semiconductor Test Bodies

- Physics
- 2011

We describe experimental and related theoretical work on the measurement of the Casimir force using semiconductor test bodies. This field of research started in 2005 and several important andâ€¦

### New Results for the Casimir Interaction:. Sample Characterization and Low Temperature Measurements

- Physics
- 2010

We describe our latest results in the separation dependence of the Casimir interaction in the sphere-plane geometry for two Au-coated surfaces. All results are obtained by measuring the change in theâ€¦

### Casimir force between dielectric media with free charges.

- PhysicsPhysical review. E, Statistical, nonlinear, and soft matter physics
- 2009

The present theory is related to an idea put forward earlier by Jancovici and Samaj (2004), namely, to evaluate the Casimir force between parallel plates invoking an electronic plasma model and the Debye-HÃ¼ckel theory for electrolytes.

### Casimir and Casimir-Polder Forces in Graphene Systems: Quantum Field Theoretical Description and Thermodynamics

- PhysicsUniverse
- 2020

We review recent results on the low-temperature behaviors of the Casimir-Polder and Casimir free energy an entropy for a polarizable atom interacting with a graphene sheet and for two grapheneâ€¦

### Materials perspective on Casimir and van der Waals interactions

- Chemistry, Physics
- 2016

Interactions induced by electromagnetic fluctuations, such as van der Waals and Casimir forces, are of universal nature present at any length scale between any types of systems with finiteâ€¦

## References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 326 REFERENCES

### Experiment and theory in the Casimir effect

- Physics
- 2006

Casimir effect is the attractive force which acts between two plane parallel, closely spaced, uncharged, metallic plates in vacuum. This phenomenon was predicted theoretically in 1948 and reliablyâ€¦

### Present status of controversies regarding the thermal Casimir force

- Physics
- 2005

It is well known that, beginning in 2000, the behaviour of the thermal correction to the Casimir force between real metals has been hotly debated. As was shown by several research groups, theâ€¦

### The Casimir effect: recent controversies and progress

- Physics
- 2004

The phenomena implied by the existence of quantum vacuum fluctuations, grouped under the title of the Casimir effect, are reviewed, with emphasis on new results discovered in the past four years. Theâ€¦

### Thermodynamical aspects of the Casimir force between real metals at nonzero temperature

- Physics
- 2002

We investigate the thermodynamical aspects of the Casimir effect in the case of plane parallel plates made of real metals. The thermal corrections to the Casimir force between real metals wereâ€¦

### Investigation of the temperature dependence of the Casimir force between real metals

- Physics
- 2001

We investigate the Casimir force acting between real metals at nonzero temperature. It is shown that the zero-frequency term of Lifshitz formula has interpretation problem in the case of real metalâ€¦

### Constraints for hypothetical interactions from a recent demonstration of the Casimir force and some possible improvements

- Physics
- 1998

The Casimir force is calculated in the configuration of a spherical lens and a disc of finite radius covered by Cu and Au thin layers which was used in a recent experiment. The correction to theâ€¦

### Demonstration of the Nontrivial Boundary Dependence of the Casimir Force

- Physics
- 1999

The Casimir force between an aluminum-coated plate with small sinusoidal corrugations and a large sphere was measured for surface separations between 0.1 and 0.9 mm using an atomic force microscope.â€¦

### Theory confronts experiment in the Casimir force measurements: Quantification of errors and precision

- Physics
- 2004

We compare theory and experiment in the Casimir force measurement between gold surfaces performed with the atomic force microscope. Both random and systematic experimental errors are found leading toâ€¦

### The Casimir effect within scattering theory

- Physics
- 2006

We review the theory of the Casimir effect using scattering techniques. After years of theoretical effort, this formalism is now largely mastered so that the accuracy of theoryâ€“experiment comparisonsâ€¦