The Case | Best not shaken or stirred! Chronic lymphocytic leukemia and hyperkalemia.

  title={The Case | Best not shaken or stirred! Chronic lymphocytic leukemia and hyperkalemia.},
  author={Rebecca M Smalley and Shelly Cook and Micah R. Chan},
  journal={Kidney international},
  volume={77 2},
A 79 year old male with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) presented to the emergency department with sepsis. Five days prior to presentation he was treated with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, rituximab and prednisone for progressive CLL, as noted on a bone marrow biopsy performed the previous week. (Figure 1) He was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and empirically treated with cefepime, ciprofloxacin and vancomycin. Blood cultures revealed E. coli sensitive to cefepime, and the… 
Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma Presenting as Transverse Myelitis.
The patient was diagnosed with Guillain-Barre syndrome with spinal cord involvement, and his recurrence of symptoms after treatment with IgG and plasmapheresis in addition to axonal polyneuropathy on EMG prompted a diagnosis of autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease.
Pseudohyperkalemia in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia. Longitudinal Analysis and Review of the Literature.
Pseudohyperkalemia in patients with leukocytosis caused by chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and its relationship to white blood cell (WBC) count is unknown and of concern, artifactually elevated potassium levels have triggered administration of unnecessary and potentially life-threatening potassiumlowering treatments including emergent dialysis.
Pseudohyperkalemia in Serum and Plasma: The Phenomena and Its Clinical Implications
A case report of a 36 year old female admitted with a provisional diagnosis of pyrexia of unknown origin with hepatosplenomegaly and anaemia under evaluation is presented, during hospital stay her potassium levels in whole blood, serum and plasma reportedly differed significantly.
Pseudohyperkalemia in a Non-compliant CLL Patient: A Case Study
A non-compliant patient previously diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia is presented for discussion of appropriate laboratory testing and diagnosis in pseudohyperkalemia.
Pseudohyperkalemia in Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
  • S. Rifkin
  • Medicine
    International journal of nephrology
  • 2011
Pseudohyperkalemia occurs occasionally in patients with extreme leukocytosis and is important to diagnose this condition early so that patients are not inappropriately treated.
Reducing the incidence of pseudohyperkalemia by avoiding making a fist during phlebotomy: a quality improvement report.
Avoiding fist clenching during phlebotomy and not using the first specimen for electrolyte measurements when obtaining multiple specimens from a single patient can reduce the occurrence of pseudohyperkalemia.
Pseudohyperkalemia from a Pneumatic Tube Transport System: Case Report and Literature Review
Pneumatic tube transport systems should be listed in the scientific literature as another potential cause of pseudohyperkalemia, especially in patients with high WBC and/or platelet counts, because regular treatments for hyperKalemia for this problem may cause patient harm.
A sweet cause of polyuria.
It is shown that in pseudohyperkalemia due to CLL, arterial sampling may not be needed, with reliable measurements of serum potassium potentially obtained through venous draws, even with use of a tourniquet, as long as extreme care is taken in technique and method of transport.
Pseudohyperkalemia in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: phlebotomy sites and pneumatic tubes.
  • S. Sindhu, J. Hix, W. Fricke
  • Medicine
    American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation
  • 2011


Pseudohyperkalemia in extreme leukocytosis.
A case of pseudohyperkalemia is observed in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia which was unrelated to both of these mechanisms, and was instead related to a common mode of drawing blood, i.e. with vacuum tubes.
Pseudohyperkalemia due to pneumatic tube transport in a leukemic patient.
This is the first description of pneumatic tube transport causing pseudohyperkalemia, and clinicians should be aware of this potential cause of false elevation of plasma potassium levels.
Pseudohyperkalemia--is serum or whole blood a better specimen type than plasma?