The CD4 (T4) antigen is an essential component of the receptor for the AIDS retrovirus

@article{Dalgleish1984TheC,
  title={The CD4 (T4) antigen is an essential component of the receptor for the AIDS retrovirus},
  author={Angus George Dalgleish and Peter C. L. Beverley and Paul R. Clapham and Dorothy H. Crawford and Mel Greaves and Robin A. Weiss},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1984},
  volume={312},
  pages={763-767}
}
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is characterized by opportunistic infections and by ‘opportunistic neoplasms’ (for example, Kaposi's sarcoma)1. Persistent generalized lymphadenopathy (PGL) is epidemiologically associated with AIDS, especially in male homosexuals. A subset of T lymphocytes positive for the CD4 antigen2 (also termed T4 antigen), is depleted in AIDS and PGL patients. A retrovirus found in T-cell cultures from these patients3–5 is strongly implicated in the aetiology of… 

T-lymphocyte T4 molecule behaves as the receptor for human retrovirus  LAV

Preincubation of T4+ lymphocytes with three individual monoclonal antibodies directed at the T4 glycoprotein blocked cell infection by LAV, strongly support the view that a surface molecule directly involved in cellular functions acts as, or is related to, the receptor for a human retrovirus.

The Role of CD4 Antigen in HIV Infection

Cell surface glycoproteins that are members of the immunoglobulin superfamily have been shown to act as viral receptors, namely ICAM-1 for the major group of rhinoviruses, and a hitherto unknown antigen as the polio receptor.

HTLV-III/LAV viral antigens in lymph nodes of homosexual men with persistent generalized lymphadenopathy and AIDS.

It is indicated that the network of follicular dendritic cells is an important reservoir of AV virus antigen at this site, and the persistence of this retrovirus inside the GCs helps explain how the follicular hyperplasia affecting FD cells and B blasts in PGL may in progressive cases be accompanied by destruction ofFD cells and gradual development of T4+ lymphopenia.

Role of the HTLV-III/LAV envelope in syncytium formation and cytopathicity

The basis for the specific cytotoxicity of the virus is investigated, and it is reported that high-level expression of the HTLV-III envelope gene induces syncytia and concomitant cell death in T4+ cell lines but not in a B-lymphocyte line.

Mediators of fusion between HIV-infected macrophages and lymphoid cells.

The properties of the in vitro infection have led several investigators to hypothesize that long-lived tissue macrophages might serve as a reservoir for HIV infection in vivo, as recent studies have shown that patients with HIV infection develop progressively increasing titers of virus in plasma with time.

Immunopathogenesis of AIDS

It is clear that HIV-i induces dysfunction of almost all of the elements of the immune system and that the pathogenetic mechanisms of the disease progression are multifactorial.

Lymphocyte functional analysis in HIV infection: mechanisms and clinical relevance

Immunological abnormalities have been observed in asymptomatic HIV-infected people with normal CD4+ T cell numbers, indicating that HIV affects the immune system before T cell depletion ensues.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 32 REFERENCES

T-lymphocyte T4 molecule behaves as the receptor for human retrovirus  LAV

Preincubation of T4+ lymphocytes with three individual monoclonal antibodies directed at the T4 glycoprotein blocked cell infection by LAV, strongly support the view that a surface molecule directly involved in cellular functions acts as, or is related to, the receptor for a human retrovirus.

Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

From these studies it is concluded that this virus as well as the previous HTLV isolates belong to a general family of T-lymphotropic retroviruses that are horizontally transmitted in humans and may be involved in several pathological syndromes, including AIDS.

Selective tropism of lymphadenopathy associated virus (LAV) for helper-inducer T lymphocytes.

Virus production was associated with impaired proliferation, modulation of T3-T4 cell markers, and the appearance of cytopathic effects, providing evidence for the involvement of LAV in AIDS.

Serological analysis of a subgroup of human T-lymphotropic retroviruses (HTLV-III) associated with AIDS.

Another subgroup of HTLV, designated HTLV-III, has now been isolated from many patients with AIDS and pre-AIDS and is shown to be a true member of the HTLV family.

Pseudotypes of human T-cell leukemia virus types 1 and 2: neutralization by patients' sera.

  • P. ClaphamK. NagyR. Weiss
  • Biology, Medicine
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1984
VSV (HTLV) pseudotypes can be readily used to screen for neutralizing antibodies in patients' sera and to distinguish HTLV envelope serotypes and was more specific and more sensitive than assays of syncytium inhibition.

Frequent detection and isolation of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and at risk for AIDS.

Peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or with signs or symptoms that frequently precede AIDS (pre-AIDS) were grown in vitro with added T-cell

Adaptation of lymphadenopathy associated virus (LAV) to replication in EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell lines.

A strain of lymphadenopathy associated retrovirus passaged in vitro was used to infect a lymphoblastoid cell line obtained by transformation with Epstein-Barr virus of B lymphocytes from a healthy donor, and this adapted strain retained the biochemical, ultrastructural, and antigenic characteristics of the original strain.

Detection, isolation, and continuous production of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and pre-AIDS.

A cell system was developed for the reproducible detection of human T-lymphotropic retroviruses (HTLV family) from patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or with signs or symptoms that frequently precede AIDS (pre-AIDS), and it provides large amounts of virus for detailed molecular and immunological analyses.