The Byzantine Generals Problem

@article{Lamport1982TheBG,
  title={The Byzantine Generals Problem},
  author={Leslie Lamport and Robert E. Shostak and Marshall C. Pease},
  journal={ACM Trans. Program. Lang. Syst.},
  year={1982},
  volume={4},
  pages={382-401}
}
Reliable computer systems must handle malfunctioning components that give conflicting information to different parts of the system. This situation can be expressed abstractly in terms of a group of generals of the Byzantine army camped with their troops around an enemy city. Communicating only by messenger, the generals must agree upon a common battle plan. However, one or more of them may be traitors who will try to confuse the others. The problem is to find an algorithm to ensure that the… 

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