The Buttermilk Creek Complex and the Origins of Clovis at the Debra L. Friedkin Site, Texas

  title={The Buttermilk Creek Complex and the Origins of Clovis at the Debra L. Friedkin Site, Texas},
  author={Michael R. Waters and Steven L. Forman and Thomas A. Jennings and Lee Nordt and Steven G. Driese and Joshua M. Feinberg and Joshua L. Keene and Jessi J. Halligan and Anna K. Lindquist and James M. Pierson and Charles T. Hallmark and Michael B Collins and James E. Wiederhold},
  pages={1599 - 1603}
A large artifact assemblage dating to 15,000 years ago lies beneath a Clovis assemblage in central Texas. Compelling archaeological evidence of an occupation older than Clovis (~12.8 to 13.1 thousand years ago) in North America is present at only a few sites, and the stone tool assemblages from these sites are small and varied. The Debra L. Friedkin site, Texas, contains an assemblage of 15,528 artifacts that define the Buttermilk Creek Complex, which stratigraphically underlies a Clovis… 
Pre-Clovis Lithic Technology at the Debra L. Friedkin Site, Texas: Comparisons to Clovis through Site-Level Behavior, Technological Trait-List, and Cladistic Analyses
Abstract Humans first left Siberia and colonized the Americas perhaps around 16,000 years ago, and the Clovis archaeological complex in North America has traditionally been linked to this migratory
Pre-Clovis occupation 14,550 years ago at the Page-Ladson site, Florida, and the peopling of the Americas
Sporormiella and other proxy evidence from the sediments indicate that hunter-gatherers along the Gulf Coastal Plain coexisted with and utilized megafauna for ~2000 years before these animals became extinct at ~12,600 cal yr B.P.
A Terminal Pleistocene/Early Holocene Environmental Record and Fluted Point from Twain Harte, California
ABSTRACT Although more than 500 Clovis points have been found at no fewer than 60 locations in California, the age of these points remains problematic. Here we report stratified deposits more than 3
Pre-Clovis projectile points at the Debra L. Friedkin site, Texas—Implications for the Late Pleistocene peopling of the Americas
The sequential relationship of stemmed projectile points followed by lanceolate forms suggests that l Lanceolate points are derived from stemmed forms or that they originated from two separate migrations into the Americas.
Late Upper Paleolithic occupation at Cooper’s Ferry, Idaho, USA, ~16,000 years ago
Radiocarbon dating of the earliest occupational phases at the Cooper's Ferry site in western Idaho indicates that people repeatedly occupied the Columbia River basin, starting between 16,560 and 15,280 calibrated years before the present, which provides support for a Pacific coastal route for the early occupation of the Americas.
A Framework for the Initial Occupation of the Americas
  • D. Madsen
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 2015
Abstract A substantial amount of archaeological data suggests groups with markedly different lithic technologies and subsistence adaptations were widespread throughout both American continents by
Pre-Clovis Mastodon Hunting 13,800 Years Ago at the Manis Site, Washington
The tip of a projectile point made of mastodon bone is embedded in a rib of a single disarticulated mastodon at the Manis site in the state of Washington, providing evidence that people were hunting proboscideans at least two millennia before Clovis.
The use of OSL dating in unstructured sands: the archaeology and chronology of the Hutton Sands at Canteen Kopje (Northern Cape Province, South Africa)
Archaeological research at the site of Canteen Kopje, Northern Cape Province, South Africa, has focused on the rich Earlier Stone Age assemblages recovered from the Younger Vaal Gravels. This paper


How Old is MVII?—Seaweeds, Shorelines, and the Pre-Clovis Chronology at Monte Verde, Chile
How Old is MVII?—Seaweeds, Shorelines, and the Pre-Clovis Chronology at Monte Verde, Chile Jon M. Erlandson, Todd J. Braje, and Michael H. Graham answer the question of how old MVII is.
The Late Pleistocene Dispersal of Modern Humans in the Americas
Current genetic evidence implies dispersal from a single Siberian population toward the Bering Land Bridge no earlier than about 30,000 years ago, then migration from Beringia to the Americas sometime after 16,500 years ago.
The North Atlantic ice-edge corridor: A possible Palaeolithic route to the New World
The early peopling of the New World has been a topic of intense research since the early twentieth century. We contend that the exclusive focus of research on a Beringian entry point has not been
DNA from Pre-Clovis Human Coprolites in Oregon, North America
It is established that humans were present at Paisley 5 Mile Point Caves, in south-central Oregon, by 12,300 14C years B.P, through the recovery of human mitochondrial DNA from coprolites, directly dated by accelerator mass spectrometry.
Beringian Standstill and Spread of Native American Founders
The newly resolved phylogenetic structure suggests that ancestors of Native Americans paused when they reached Beringia, during which time New World founder lineages differentiated from their Asian sister-clades, and a swift migration southward that distributed the founder types all the way to South America.
Site Formation Processes at the Buttermilk Creek Site (41BL1239), Bell County, Texas
Site Formation Processes at the Buttermilk Creek Site (41BL1239), Bell County, Texas.
Experimental Determination of Stone Tool Uses: A Microwear Analysis
A major problem confronting archeologists is how to determine the function of ancient stone tools. In this important work, Lawrence H. Keeley reports on his own highly successful course of research