The Business of American Democracy: Citizens United, Independent Spending, and Elections

  title={The Business of American Democracy: Citizens United, Independent Spending, and Elections},
  author={Tilman Klumpp and Hugo M. Mialon and Michael A. Williams},
  journal={The Journal of Law and Economics},
  pages={1 - 43}
In Citizens United v. FEC, the US Supreme Court ruled that restrictions on independent political expenditures by corporations and labor unions are unconstitutional. We analyze the effects of Citizens United on state election outcomes. We find that Citizens United is associated with an increase in Republicans’ election probabilities in state house races of approximately 4 percentage points overall and 10 or more percentage points in several states. We link these estimates to on-the-ground… Expand
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