The Braincase of Apatosaurus (Dinosauria: Sauropoda) Based on Computed Tomography of a New Specimen with Comments on Variation and Evolution in Sauropod Neuroanatomy

@inproceedings{Balanoff2010TheBO,
  title={The Braincase of Apatosaurus (Dinosauria: Sauropoda) Based on Computed Tomography of a New Specimen with Comments on Variation and Evolution in Sauropod Neuroanatomy},
  author={Amy M. Balanoff and Gabe S. Bever and Takehito Ikejiri},
  year={2010}
}
Abstract We describe a previously unreported braincase of the sauropod dinosaur Apatosaurus from the Cactus Park Quarry, Morrison Formation of western Colorado using high-resolution X-ray computed tomography. The digital nature of these data allowed us to prepare and describe the first three-dimensional rendering of the endocranial space in this historically important dinosaur species. Results are compared with a range of taxa drawn from across the sauropod tree revealing previously… 

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TLDR
The variation observed in the sauropod endocranium indicates an evolutionary tendency in titanosaurs toward the anteroposterior shortening of the midbrain, and the reduction in size of the semicircular canals of the inner ear, in particular the anterior semicircul canal.

A New Titanosaurian Braincase from the Cretaceous “Lo Hueco” Locality in Spain Sheds Light on Neuroanatomical Evolution within Titanosauria

TLDR
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The Braincase of the Theropod Dinosaur Murusraptor: Osteology, Neuroanatomy and Comments on the Paleobiological Implications of Certain Endocranial Features

Abstract. A detailed description of the neuroanatomy of Murusraptor barrosaensis—a mid-sized non-maniraptoran theropod from the Late Cretaceous of north Patagonia—is based on the exceptionally

Neurocranial Osteology and Neuroanatomy of a Late Cretaceous Titanosaurian Sauropod from Spain (Ampelosaurus sp.)

TLDR
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The braincase, brain and palaeobiology of the basal sauropodomorph dinosaur Thecodontosaurus antiquus

TLDR
The braincase osteology and neuroanatomy of Thecodontosaurus are redescribed and the endocranial reconstruction is reconstructed, revealing important aspects of the palaeobiology of The codontosaurus, supporting a bipedal stance and cursorial habits, with adaptations to retain a steady head and gaze while moving.

Braincase Redescription of Dysalotosaurus lettowvorbecki (Dinosauria, Ornithopoda) Based On Computed Tomography

TLDR
The middle and inner ears of Dysalotosaurus bear a mosaic of primitive and derived features, pointing to a more complex evolutionary history of these structures, including the braincase and inner ear.

Braincase redescription of Efraasia minor Huene, 1908 (Dinosauria: Sauropodomorpha) from the Late Triassic of Germany, with comments on the evolution of the sauropodomorph braincase

TLDR
A series of differences regarding braincase anatomy between non-sauropodan and sauropod taxa is demonstrated, however, it remains unclear if these differences might be due to a drastic morphological change or if they simply reflect the small number of braincase materials of non-neosAUropodan sauropods, which might indicate a more stepwise evolution.

The Braincase of the Basal Sauropod Dinosaur Spinophorosaurus and 3D Reconstructions of the Cranial Endocast and Inner Ear

TLDR
In contrast to what might be expected early within a lineage leading to plant-eating graviportal quadrupeds, Spinophorosaurus and other (but not all) sauropodomorphs show no reduction of the vestibular apparatus of the inner ear.

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