The Brain Prize 2013: the optogenetics revolution

@article{Reiner2013TheBP,
  title={The Brain Prize 2013: the optogenetics revolution},
  author={A. Reiner and E. Isacoff},
  journal={Trends in Neurosciences},
  year={2013},
  volume={36},
  pages={557-560}
}
The 2013 Grete Lundbeck European Brain Research Prize was awarded to Ernst Bamberg, Edward Boyden, Karl Deisseroth, Peter Hegemann, Gero Miesenböck, and Georg Nagel 'for their invention and refinement of optogenetics'. Why optogenetics? And why this sextet? To appreciate why, we turn first to some of the core questions of neuroscience and the technical difficulties that long obstructed their resolution. 

Figures and Topics from this paper

Advancing Fear Memory Research with Optogenetics
Abstract Despite decades of research, our understanding of how memories are formed, saved and extracted remains quite elusive. The incorporation of optogenetics (a method allowing real-time controlExpand
Design of the first neuronal connectomics challenge: From imaging to connectivity
TLDR
A challenge to reverse engineer the structure of neuronal networks from patterns of activity recorded with calcium fluorescence imaging, by reconstructing the effective connectivity of a neuronal network from observations of neuronal activity of thousands of neurons, which can be obtained with state-of-the-art fluorescence calcium imaging. Expand
Optogenetics: past, present and future
TLDR
How light can be used to manipulate the membrane potential of various cells; how light-sensitive proteins can been used to regulate targeted gene expression, and how controlled release or spatio-temporal targeting of certain molecules can be modulated by light are discussed. Expand
New light on neurotransmitter-gated receptors: Optical approaches for controlling physiological function
Abstract Neurotransmitter-gated receptors contribute to synaptic transmission and modulation in many ways. Considering glutamate receptors as an example, it becomes clear that these receptor familiesExpand
Implementation of Optogenetics Technique for Neuron Photostimulation: A Physical Approach
Optogenetics is an opto-triggered neuron-switching technique in specific neuron clusters of the nervous system. Specifically, the chapter redefined the implantation of physical optode–electrodeExpand
OPTOGENETICS FOR RETINAL DISORDERS (PERSPECTIVE)
TLDR
Although optogenetics has drawn closer to clinical utility, advances in opsin engineering, therapeutic targeting and ultimately in molecular inhibition of remodeling will play critical roles in the continued clinical advancement of optogenetic therapy. Expand
Optogenetics for Retinal Disorders
TLDR
Although optogenetics has drawn closer to clinical utility, advances in opsin engineering, therapeutic targeting and ultimately in molecular inhibition of remodeling will play critical roles in the continued clinical advancement of optogenetic therapy. Expand
Optical Tools to Investigate Cellular Activity in the Intestinal Wall
TLDR
How live imaging of cellular physiology has progressed the authors' understanding of the control of gastrointestinal motility is focused on, and the hurdles to overcome are discussed in order to apply the novel tools in the field of neurogastroenterology and motility. Expand
Modulation of Memory Consolidation, Retrieval and Extinction by Brain Histamine
The brain histaminergic system, whose cell bodies are in the tuberomammilary nucleus, regulates various memory types. The best studied is inhibitory avoidance, which depends on histamine H2 receptorsExpand
Stuttering treatment and brain research in adults: A still unfolding relationship.
TLDR
The purpose of this paper is to review the extent to which dual lines of research with adults who stutter have intersected and whether they are contributing towards the alleviation of this impairment. Expand
...
1
2
3
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 21 REFERENCES
Optochemical control of genetically engineered neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.
TLDR
Heteromeric α3β4 and α4β2 nAChRs are produced that can be activated or inhibited with deep-violet light, but respond normally to acetylcholine in the dark. Expand
Millisecond-timescale, genetically targeted optical control of neural activity
Temporally precise, noninvasive control of activity in well-defined neuronal populations is a long-sought goal of systems neuroscience. We adapted for this purpose the naturally occurring algalExpand
Selective Photostimulation of Genetically ChARGed Neurons
TLDR
Coexpression of the Drosophila photoreceptor genes encoding arrestin-2, rhodopsin, and the alpha subunit of the cognate heterotrimeric G protein--an explosive combination the authors term "chARGe"--sensitizes generalist vertebrate neurons to light, and localizes the responsiveness to light. Expand
Multimodal fast optical interrogation of neural circuitry
TLDR
An archaeal light-driven chloride pump from Natronomonas pharaonis is identified and developed for temporally precise optical inhibition of neural activity and forms a complete system for multimodal, high-speed, genetically targeted, all-optical interrogation of living neural circuits. Expand
Optical control and measurement of metabotropic glutamate receptors and K2P potassium channels
Author(s): Levitz, Joshua Todd | Advisor(s): Isacoff, Ehud Y | Abstract: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are an extremely important class of membrane receptors that convert extracellular stimuliExpand
Multiple-Color Optical Activation, Silencing, and Desynchronization of Neural Activity, with Single-Spike Temporal Resolution
TLDR
This work reports that targeting the codon-optimized form of the light-driven chloride pump halorhodopsin from the archaebacterium Natronomas pharaonis to genetically-specified neurons enables them to be silenced reliably, and reversibly, by millisecond-timescale pulses of yellow light. Expand
Optical Control of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors
TLDR
Light gated two of the primary neuronal functions of mGluR2: suppression of excitability and inhibition of neurotransmitter release are light gated, paving the way for determining the roles of g protein–coupled receptors in synaptic plasticity, memory and disease. Expand
Fast noninvasive activation and inhibition of neural and network activity by vertebrate rhodopsin and green algae channelrhodopsin.
TLDR
Light-activated vertebrate RO4 and green algae ChR2 allow the antagonistic control of neuronal function within ms to s in a precise, reversible, and noninvasive manner in cultured neurons and intact vertebrate spinal cords. Expand
Light-activated ion channels for remote control of neuronal firing
TLDR
These synthetic photoisomerizable azobenzene-regulated K+ (SPARK) channels allow rapid, precise and reversible control over neuronal firing, with potential applications for dissecting neural circuits and controlling activity downstream from sites of neural damage or degeneration. Expand
Light Activation of Channelrhodopsin-2 in Excitable Cells of Caenorhabditis elegans Triggers Rapid Behavioral Responses
TLDR
Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) is employed, a directly light-gated cation channel from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, in excitable cells of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, to trigger specific behaviors, simply by illumination, in neurons and muscles. Expand
...
1
2
3
...