The Boulder model: history, rationale, and critique

  title={The Boulder model: history, rationale, and critique},
  author={George H. Frank},
  journal={Professional Psychology: Research and Practice},
  • G. Frank
  • Published 1 June 1984
  • Psychology
  • Professional Psychology: Research and Practice
Although the current philosophy of education in clinical psychology allows for the existence oj a program of training clinical psychologists who primarily want to be practitioners in conjunction with the more traditional scientist-practitioner (Boulder Model) program, departments of psychology have been reticent to adopt two-track programs. Indeed, the controversy as to the heuristic value of the scientist-practitioner program versus the practitioner program continues. The criticism of the… 
The Boulder Model Revisited: The Training of the Clinical Psychologist for Research
  • G. Frank
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Psychological reports
  • 1986
It is assumed that the recommendation to develop a doctoral program for students of clinical psychology who are interested in being researchers has not been done and that the current formulation of the Boulder Model program is not that different from the 1965 model.
The Boulder Model Revisited
If we can differentiate the Boulder philosophy (that is, the intent of the participants at the 1949 Boulder Conference on training in clinical psychology) from the Boulder-model program (that is, the
Before Boulder: Professionalizing clinical psychology, 1896-1949
This dissertation documents the early history that led to the scientist-practitioner ("Boulder") model of training in clinical psychology. It uncovers pre-Boulder training guidelines and programs
Scientist versus Practitioner–An abridged meta-analysis of the changing role of psychologists
This study investigated factors of conflicting expectations and roles of the current psychology practitioners, as well as how these factors were associated with the founding principles of the
Evidence-Based Practice:
A consensus has long existed that the scientist-practitioner model has failed to reflect what was envisioned by the Boulder Conference participants and endorsed by counseling psychology at the
Graduate psychology students' perceptions of the scientist-practitioner model of training
Abstract Since its inception over forty years ago, there has been considerable controversy regarding the viability of the scientist-practitioner model for training professional psychologists. The
The Boulder and/or the Vail model: training preferences of clinical psychologists.
This study examined the preferences of Division 12 members for doctoral training models (Boulder,Vail, equally Boulder and Vail) as a function of the respondent's own training program and current professional activities to argue for a more informed and restrained dialogue on the issue.
A Problem of Personality: Scientist and Practitioner Differences in Psychology
Differences between scientists and practitioners have been one of the most consistent and controversial topics throughout the history of American psychology. Even though many qualitative arguments
Student Views of Their Scientist-Practitioner Training
Objectives: The goal of the scientist-practitioner (S-P) training model is to produce clinical psychologists equipped to integrate and utilize both science and practice in the clinical and research
The Scientist–Practitioner Model in Clinical Psychology: A Critique
The scientist‐practitioner philosophy of clinical practice is first placed in its historical context. The history of the scientist‐practitioner stance is marked by an enduring struggle between


  • S. Golann
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 1970
As scientific findings increase in relevance to human welfare and human destiny, the scientists’ responsibility for explanation and teaching grows, ethical issues in the development and application of psychological knowledge are more complex and more demanding of psychologists' attention than at almost any other time in the history of the discipline.
Personal Needs of Graduate Students in Psychology
This research was designed to assess whether graduate smdents in clinical psychology can be differentiated from those in experimental psychology in terms of their personal needs. Two groups were
Psychology of Scientist: XXXIII. Cognitive Style Differences between Science and Non-Science Faculty and Students
Jackson's shortened form of Witkin's Embedded Figures Test was individually administered to 24 undergraduate male students and 24 male university faculty to assess their level of field dependence.
Psychology as science and profession.
1. Students will learn about the scientific nature of psychology and appreciate its importance in the practice of psychology. 2. Students will learn about career opportunities in the discipline and
Interest Patterns for Certain Occupational Groups: Occupational Interest Inventory (Lee-Thorpe
counsel high school students and adults results obtained from 4083 male veterans on the Occupational Interest Inventory: ~dvanced Series, Form fI (Lee-Thorpe), published by the California Test
II—Some Differences between Prospective Scientists, Non-Scientists and Early Leavers in a Representative Sample of English Grammar School Boys
Summary. 1.— What sorts of boys are most likely to have both a high level of educational aspiration and a preference for scientific studies? Answers to this question were sought through a
Early determinants of vocational choice.
This chapter discusses some hypotheses about the relationships between early experience and attitudes, abilities, interests, and other personality factors that affect the ultimate vocational
Factor analysis of Strong Vocational Interest Blank items.
University of MinnesotaThis study was undertaken to identify independent interest dimensions thatwere equivalent across different subject samples, as a first step toward mappingthe vocational
Is psychology a profession?
  • D. Peterson
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The American psychologist
  • 1976
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